Villanova, R. M., et al. (1984). Handbook for the Use of the Connecticut School Effectiveness Interview and Questionnaire. Hartford, CT: Connecticut Department of Education.
Comments: The 97-item CSEQ measures seven characteristics of effective schools. Information about the development and validity of the questionnaire and interview are included in the handbook. A summary profile and an integrated item profile were generated.
Reliability: The alpha coefficients for 423 teachers were 0.87 (safe and orderly environment); 0.90 (clear school mission); 0.93 (instructional leadership); 0.55 (expectations); 0.66 (opportunity to learn); 0.77 (monitoring student progress); and 0.89 (home/school relations). Test-retest reliabilities for 60 elementary teachers over a 10-day period were
0.85 (safe and orderly environment); 0.90 (clear school mission); 0.83 (instructional leadership); 0.69 (expectations);
0.74 (opportunity to learn); 0.67 (monitoring student progress); and 0.82 (home/school relations).
Validity: Content validity was established from the far-right descriptors in the Interview items. A panel of experts sorted items into the various categories. At least 80 percent agreement was required before an item was included. To further refine the questionnaire, a pilot study was conducted with six teachers. Construct validity was achieved by a multi trait multimethod analysis. Support is provided for convergent validity and discriminant validity. Results of factor analytic procedures were not available.
Definitions: Definitions are provided for each of the seven effective school characteristics.
Characteristics: The seven effective school characteristics are: safe and orderly environment (1–9), clear school mission (10–25), instructional leadership (26–49), high expectations (50–63), opportunity to learn and time-on-task (64–73), frequent monitoring of student progress (74–82), and home-school relations (83–91).
Data Analysis: Means, standard deviations, and a rank order for the seven characteristics are reported for 10 schools.
The results of the multitrait-multimethod analysis is reported for 247 educators.
Edmonds, R. (1979). A discussion of the literature and issues related to effective schooling. Cambridge, MA: Center for Urban Studies, Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Proctor, C. P. (1984). Teacher expectations: A model for school improvement. Elementary School Journal 84:469–81. Purkey, S. C., and Smith, M. S. (1983). Effective schools: A review. Elementary School Journal 83:427–52.
Connecticut School Effectiveness Questionnaire
Safe and Orderly Environment
1. This school is a safe and secure place to work.
2. The school building is neat, bright, clean, and comfortable.
3. A positive feeling permeates the school.
4. Most students in this school are eager and enthusiastic about learning.
5. Student behavior is generally positive in this school.
6. Teachers, administrators, and parents work cooperatively to support the discipline policy in this school.
7. The discipline policy is consistently enforced by all staff in this school.
8. Students in this school abide by school rules.
9. Class atmosphere in this school is generally very conducive to learning for all students.
Clear School Mission
10. This school has a written statement of purpose that is the driving force behind most important decisions.
11. In this school, the primary emphasis is on teaching and learning.
12. All materials and supplies necessary for instruction are available.
13. In reading, written, sequential objectives exist in all grades.
14. Reading objectives are coordinated and monitored in all grades.
15. In reading, there is an identified set of objectives that all students must master in all grades.
16. In reading, curriculum objectives are the focus of instruction in this school.
17. In language arts, written, sequential objectives exist in all grades.
18. Language arts objectives are coordinated and monitored in all grades.
19. In language arts, there is an identified set of objectives that all students must master in all grades.
20. In language arts, curriculum objectives are the focus of instruction in this school.
21. In mathematics, written, sequential objectives exist in all grades.
22. Mathematics objectives are coordinated and monitored in all grades.
23. In mathematics, there is an identified set of objectives that all students must master in all grades.
24. In mathematics, curriculum objectives are the focus of instruction in this school.
25. Almost all the students in this school try hard to get good grades.
26. There is clear, strong, centralized instructional leadership from the principal in this school.
27. Most problems facing this school can be solved by the principal and faculty without a great deal of outside help.
28. The principal is very active in securing resources, arranging opportunities, and promoting staff development activi- ties for the faculty.
29. The principal is highly visible throughout the school.
30. The principal is accessible to discuss matters dealing with instruction.
31. The principal is an important instructional resource person in this school.
32. Teachers in this school turn to the principal with instructional concerns or problems.
33. The principal makes informal contacts with students and teachers around the school.
34. Discussions with the principal often result in some aspect of improved instructional practice.
35. The principal leads frequent formal discussions concerning instruction and student achievement.
36. The principal regularly brings instructional issues to the faculty for discussion.
37. The principal reviews and interprets test results with the faculty.
38. The principal emphasizes the meaning and the use of test results.
39. The principal frequently communicates to teachers their responsibility in relation to student achievement.
40. The principal uses test results to recommend modifications or changes in the instructional program.
41. At the principal’s initiative, teachers work together to coordinate the instructional program within and between grades.
42. The principal requires and regularly reviews lesson plans.
43. The principal regularly gives feedback to teachers concerning lesson plans.
44. Supervision is directed at instruction.
45. The principal makes formal classroom observations.
46. Individual teachers and the principal meet regularly to discuss what the principal will observe during a classroom observation.
47. Formal observations by the principal are regularly followed by a postobservation conference.
48. During follow-up to formal observations, a plan for improvement frequently results.
49. During follow-up to formal observations, the principal’s main emphasis is on instructional issues.
50. Ninety-five to 100 percent of the students in this school can be expected to complete high school.
51. All teachers in this school hold consistently high expectations for all students.
52. Teachers believe that a student’s home background is not the primary factor that determines individual student achievement in this school.
53. In this school low-achieving students are as well behaved as other students.
54. Teachers in this school believe they are responsible for all students mastering basic skills at each grade level.
55. Teachers believe that all students in this school can master basic skills as a direct result of the instructional program.
56. This school has successful preventive strategies for helping students at risk of school failure.
57. In this school, remedial programs are a last resort.
58. The number of low-income children promoted is proportionately equivalent to all other children promoted.
59. In this school, there are clear guidelines for grouping students for instruction.
60. In reading, instruction is often presented to a heterogeneous ability group of students.
61. In mathematics, instruction is often presented to a heterogeneous ability group of students.
62. In language arts, instruction is often presented to a heterogeneous ability group of students.
63. Within the classroom, students are assigned to groups for extra help on a temporary basis only.
Opportunity to Learn and Time-On-Task
64. The school’s daily schedule supports the goals of the instructional program.
65. Two hours or more are allocated for reading/language arts each day throughout this school.
66. Fifty minutes or more are allocated for mathematics each day throughout this school.
67. Pull-out programs (e.g., chapter 1, special ed., instrumental music, etc.) do not disrupt or interfere with basic skills instruction.
68. Special instructional programs for individual students are integrated with classroom instruction and the school curriculum.
69. Teachers implement the homework policy in this school.
70. Factors outside the classroom rarely interfere with instruction in this school.
71. There are few interruptions due to discipline problems during class time.
72. During classroom instruction students do not work independently on seatwork for the majority of the allocated time.
73. Students are absent from school only for good reasons.
Frequent Monitoring of Student Progress
74. Multiple indicators are used regularly to assess student progress (e.g., grades, tests, discipline referrals, extracurricular).
75. The testing program is an accurate and valid measure of the curriculum in this school.
76. Criterion-referenced tests are used to assess instruction throughout the school.
77. Achievement test scores are analyzed separately for subgroups of students (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity, social class) to assure that all students are achieving.
78. Teachers and the principal thoroughly review and analyze test results to plan instructional program modifications.
79. Many students receive honor and recognition for academic performance.
80. Students have many opportunities to demonstrate leadership skill.
81. Students have many opportunities to demonstrate talents in art, music, drama, dance, and athletics.
82. In this school, all teachers apply consistent criteria to assigning course grades.
83. There is an active parent/school group in this school.
84. Many parents are involved in school activities.
85. Many parents initiate contacts with the school each month.
86. Most parents understand and promote the school’s instructional program.
87. Parents support the school in matters of student discipline.
88. Parents support the homework policy in this school.
89. There is cooperation with regard to homework between parents and teachers in this school.
90. Almost all students complete assigned homework before coming to school.
91. Ninety to 100 percent of your students’ parents attend scheduled parent-teacher conferences.
92. During parent-teacher conferences there is a focus on factors directly related to student achievement.
93. Parent-teacher conferences result in specific plans for home-school cooperation aimed at improving student class- room achievement.
94. Beyond parent conferences and report cards, teachers in this school use other ways of communicating student prog- ress to parents (e.g., home visits, phone calls, newsletters, regular notes).
95. Parents of students in your class have regular opportunities to observe the instructional program.
96. Parents of students in your class have a significant, rather than a superficial, role in the educational program.
97. Most parents would rate this school as excellent.
Scoring: Strongly Disagree = 1; Disagree = 2; Undecided = 3; Agree = 4; and Strongly Agree = 5.