Bentley, R. R., and Rempel, A. M. (1970). Purdue Teacher Opinionnaire. Lafayette, IN: Purdue Research Foundation, Purdue University.
Comments: The 100-item Purdue Teacher Opinionnaire (PTO) not only provides a total score that indicates a general level of teacher morale, but also 10 subscale scores that provide meaningful information about the various components of teacher morale. The PTO is the most frequently cited instrument to measure morale.
Scale Construction: Originally, the 145-item PTO contained items in eight areas: teaching as an occupation; relation- ships with students; relationships with other teachers; administrative policies and procedures; relationships with com- munity; curriculum factors; working conditions; and economic factors. KR reliability coefficients ranged from 0.79 to 0.98, with an overall reliability coefficient of 0.96.
Sample: The original sample of 3,023 consisted of high school teachers from 60 schools in Indiana (stratified random sample) and 16 schools in Oregon (eastern part of the state).
Reliability: The following test-retest correlations are reported: 0.88 (teacher rapport with principal); 0.84 (satisfaction with teaching); 0.80 (rapport among teachers); 0.81 (teacher salary); 0.77 (teacher load); 0.76 (curriculum issues);
0.81 (teacher status); 0.78 (community support of education); 0.80 (school facilities and services); and 0.62 (commu- nity pressures). The correlations range from 0.62 (community pressures) to 0.88 (teacher rapport with principal) with a median correlation of 0.87. In addition, norms are available for all school levels.
Validity: The PTO discriminates not only among different schools, but also among the individual teachers within a particular school. In addition, principals completed the PTO the way they thought their faculty would respond. Dif- ferences between the median scores for teachers and principals were not significant.
Factor Analysis: Originally, a principal components analysis and an oblique rotation of the extracted factors were performed (570 teachers). The results yielded eight factors. Then, additional factor analytic procedures were con- ducted to high, middle, and low teacher morale groups. Ten factors were identified instead of eight. The 10 factors are: 20 items on teacher rapport with principal (2, 3, 5, 7, 12, 33, 38, 41, 43, 44, 61, 62, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 92, 93,
and 95); 20 items on satisfaction with teaching (19, 24, 26, 27, 29, 30, 46, 47, 50, 51, 56, 58, 60, 76, 78, 82, 83,
86, 89, and 100); 14 items on rapport among teachers (18, 22, 23, 28, 48, 52, 53, 54, 55, 77, 80, 84, 87, and 90);
seven items on teacher salary (4, 9, 32, 36, 39, 65, and 75); 11 items on teacher load (1, 6, 8, 10, 11, 14, 31, 34, 40,
42, and 45); five items on curriculum issues (17, 20, 25, 79, and 88); eight items on teacher status (13, 15, 35, 37,
63, 64, 68, and 71); five items on community support of education (66, 67, 94, 96, and 97); five items on school
facilities and services (16, 21, 49, 57, 59); and five items on community pressures (81, 85, 91, 98, and 99). The PTO Supplement contains two new factors: teacher rapport with school board (10 items) and teacher rapport with superintendent (10 items).
Definition of Factors: Teacher rapport with principal deals with the teacher’s feelings about the principal (his/ her professional competency), his/her interest in teachers and their work, his/her ability to communicate, and his/ her skill in human relations. Satisfaction with teaching deals with teacher relationships with students and feelings of satisfaction with teaching. Rapport among teachers deals with a teacher’s relationships with other teachers. Teacher salary deals with the teacher’s feelings about salary and salary policies. Teacher load deals with record- keeping, clerical work, community demands on teacher time, extracurricular load, and keeping up-to-date professionally. Curriculum issues deal with teacher reactions to the adequacy of the school program in meeting student needs. Teacher status deals with the prestige, security, and benefits of teaching. Community support of education deals with the extent to which the community understands and is willing to support a sound educational program. School facilities and services deal with the adequacy of facilities, supplies, and equipment as well as the efficiency of the procedures for obtaining materials and services. Community pressures deal with community expectations with respect to the teacher’s personal standards, his/her participation in outside-school activities, and his/her freedom to discuss controversial issues in the classroom.
Data Analysis: Test-retest correlations, frequency distribution of test-retest correlations for individual schools by factor and total scores, means and standard deviations, inter factor correlations, median scores by factors, percentile distribution of school medians by factors, and percentile distribution of school medians by items are reported.
Carroll, D. F. O. (1992). Teacher morale as related to school leadership behavior. EdD dissertation, East Tennessee State University.
Fisher, P. V. (2010). An investigation of leadership best practices and teacher moral in six community college child development centers in southern California. PhD dissertation, Capella University.
Ivie, S. C. (2007). School leaders’ behavior informed by thirteen core leadership competencies and the relationship to teacher job satisfaction. EdD dissertation, University of Memphis.
Pikos, S. (1993). Perceptions of building administrators and teachers at the secondary level on the role of the teacher in shared decision-making. EdD dissertation, Wayne State University.
Zbikowski, L. G. (1992). A study of the relationship between elementary principal leadership behavior and teacher morale. PhD dissertation, Michigan State University.
Purdue Teacher Opinionnaire
1. Details, “red tape,” and required reports absorb too much of my time.
2. The work of individual faculty members is appreciated and commended by our principal.
3. Teachers feel free to criticize administrative policy at faculty meetings called by our principal.
4. The faculty feels that their salary suggestions are adequately transmitted by the administration to the school board.
5. Our principal shows favoritism in his relations with the teachers in our school.
6. Teachers in this school are expected to do an unreasonable amount of recordkeeping and clerical work.
7. My principal makes a real effort to maintain close contact with the faculty.
8. Community demands upon the teacher’s time are unreasonable.
9. I am satisfied with the policies under which pay raises are granted.
10. My teaching load is greater than that of most of the other teachers in our school.
11. The extracurricular load of the teachers in our school is unreasonable.
12. Our principal’s leadership in faculty meetings challenges and stimulates our professional growth.
13. My teaching position gives me the social status in the community that I desire.
14. The number of hours a teacher must work is unreasonable.
15. Teaching enables me to enjoy many of the material and cultural things I like.
16. My school provides me with adequate classroom supplies and equipment.
17. Our school has a well-balanced curriculum.
18. There is a great deal of griping, arguing, taking sides, and feuding among our teachers.
19. Teaching gives me a great deal of personal satisfaction.
20. The curriculum of our school makes reasonable provision for student individual differences.
21. The procedures for obtaining materials and services are well defined and efficient.
22. Generally, teachers in our school do not take advantage of one another.
23. The teachers in our school cooperate with each other to achieve common, personal, and professional objectives.
24. Teaching enables me to make my greatest contribution to society.
25. The curriculum of our school is in need of major revisions.
26. I love to teach.
27. If I could plan my career again, I would choose teaching.
28. Experienced faculty members accept new and younger members as colleagues.
29. I would recommend teaching as an occupation to students of high scholastic ability.
30. If I could earn as much money in another occupation, I would stop teaching.
31. The school schedule places my classes at a disadvantage.
32. The school tries to follow a generous policy regarding fringe benefits, professional travel, professional study, etc.
33. My principal makes my work easier and more pleasant.
34. Keeping up professionally is too much of a burden.
35. Our community makes its teachers feel as though they are a real part of the community.
36. Salary policies are administered with fairness and justice.
37. Teaching affords me the security I want in a position.
38. My school principal understands and recognizes good teaching procedures.
39. Teachers clearly understand the policies governing salary increases.
40. My classes are used as a “dumping ground” for problem students.
41. The lines and methods of communication between teachers and the principal in our school are well developed and maintained.
42. My teaching load in this school is unreasonable.
43. My principal shows a real interest in my department.
44. Our principal promotes a sense of belonging among the teachers in our school.
45. My heavy teaching load unduly restricts my nonprofessional activities.
46. I find my contacts with students, for the most part, highly satisfying and rewarding.
47. I feel that I am an important part of this school system.
48. The competency of teachers in our school compares favorably with that of teachers in other schools that I know.
49. My school provides the teachers with adequate audiovisual aids and projection equipment.
50. I feel successful and competent in my present position.
51. I enjoy working with student organizations, clubs, and societies.
52. Our teaching staff is congenial to work with.
53. My teaching associates are well prepared for their jobs.
54. Our school faculty has a tendency to form into cliques.
55. The teachers in our school work well together.
56. I am at a disadvantage professionally because other teachers are better prepared to teach than I am.
57. Our school provides adequate clerical services for the teachers.
58. As far as I know, the other teachers think I am a good teacher.
59. Library facilities and resources are adequate for the grade or subject area which I teach.
60. The “stress and strain” resulting from teaching makes teaching undesirable for me.
61. My principal is concerned with the problems of the faculty and handles these problems sympathetically.
62. I do not hesitate to discuss any school problem with my principal.
63. Teaching gives me the prestige I desire.
64. My teaching job enables me to provide a satisfactory standard of living for my family.
65. The salary schedule in our school adequately recognizes teacher competency.
66. Most of the people in this community understand and appreciate good education.
67. In my judgment, this community is a good place to raise a family.
68. This community respects its teachers and treats them like professional persons.
69. My principal acts as though he is interested in me and my problems.
70. My school principal supervises rather than “snoopervises” the teachers in our school.
71. It is difficult for teachers to gain acceptance by the people in this community.
72. Teachers’ meetings as now conducted by our principal waste the time and energy of the staff.
73. My principal has a reasonable understanding of the problems connected with my teaching assignment.
74. I feel that my work is judged fairly by my principal.
75. Salaries paid in this school system compare favorably with salaries in other systems with which I am familiar.
76. Most of the actions of students irritate me.
77. The cooperativeness of teachers in our school helps make my work more enjoyable.
78. My students regard me with respect and seem to have confidence in my professional ability.
79. The purposes and objectives of the school cannot be achieved by the present curriculum.
80. The teachers in our school have a desirable influence on the values and attitudes of their students.
81. This community expects its teachers to meet unreasonable personal standards.
82. My students appreciate the help I give them with their school work.
83. To me there is no more challenging work than teaching.
84. Other teachers in our school are appreciative of my work.
85. As a teacher in this community my nonprofessional activities outside of school are unduly restricted.
86. As a teacher, I think I am as competent as most other teachers.
87. The teachers with whom I work have high professional ethics.
88. Our school curriculum does a good job of preparing students to become enlightened and competent citizens.
89. I really enjoy working with my students.
90. The teachers in our school show a great deal of initiative and creativity in their teaching assignments.
91. Teachers in our community feel free to discuss controversial issues in their classes.
92. My principal tries to make me feel comfortable when he visits my classes.
93. My principal makes effective use of the individual teacher’s capacity and talent.
94. The people in this community, generally, have a sincere and wholehearted interest in the school system.
95. Teachers feel free to go to the principal about problems of personal and group welfare.
96. This community supports ethical procedures regarding the appointment and reappointment of the teaching staff.
97. This community is willing to support a good program of education.
98. Our community expects the teachers to participate in too many social activities.
99. Community pressures prevent me from doing my best as a teacher.
100. I am well satisfied with my present teaching position.
Scoring: Agree = 4; Probably Agree = 3; Probably Disagree = 2; and Disagree = 1. The scoring is reversed for the fol- lowing items: 1, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 14, 18, 25, 30, 31, 34, 40, 42, 45, 54, 56, 60, 71, 72, 76, 79, 81, 85, 98, and 99.