Psychological Empowerment Scale (PES)
Akey‚ 1996 & Akey et al‚ 2000
1. I have control over decisions that are made concerning my child.
2. I offer my services as a supporting parent in a parent organization.
3. I often get together with other parents to discuss a common problem affecting our families.
4. I communicate my ideas to others clearly.
5. I am involved in decision-making in a parent organization or service program.
6. I informally share information with other parents.
7. I advocate effectively for my child with professionals.
8. I feel in control of my life.
9. I spend time with other parents talking about my family.
10.I am able to explain myself until I make myself clear.
11.I feel like I have choices for my family.
12.I help lead a support group for other parents.
13.When I have to get something done‚ I get to work on it quickly.
14.Regardless of what other people do‚ I have control over how my family’s needs are met.
17.I have many choices about how to meet my family’s needs.
18.I participate in a support group for parents of children with a disability.
19.There is at least one other parent I can go to for emotional support.
20.I try to learn new skills even if they seem difficult.
22.I try to act as an emotional support to other parents.
23.I think I make good decisions about what my family needs.
24.I have control over what happens in my family.
25.I have worked informally with other parents to address a need common to all of us.
26.I feel competent to meet my child’s needs.
27.I have the power to get what my family needs.
28.I am actively involved in a formal parent organization.
29.I think my decision-making skills are as good as other parents.
30.I am on an advisory board for a parent organization or service program.
31.I feel a sense of community with other parents who have a child with a disability.
32.I can usually solve problems that confront my family.
Subscale Attitudes of Control and Competence
- I think I make good choices about what my family needs.
- I believe I have the power to make positive changes for my family.
- I feel I make good decisions about what my family needs.
- I think my input has an important influence on how decisions are made about providing services to my family.
- I think I make good decisions about my family’s well-being.
- I believe that organizational skills are a strength of mine.
- I see myself as someone who usually achieves the goals I set for myself.
- When I have to get something done‚ I get right to work on it.
- If I do not do something well‚ I am likely to try harder the next time.
- I deal with the service system effectively.
- I know who to talk to when there is a problem with my family.
- I know how to use the resources available to my family.
- I know where to get information about the resources that my family needs.
- I effectively advocate for my child with professionals.
- I would be likely to speak out about an important policy issue concerning families.
- I understand how service systems and parent organizations work.
Subscale Informal Participation
- I actively keep up with what my family’s legal rights are.
- I know my rights as a parent of a child with a disability.
- I spend time with other parents talking about my family.
- Socializing with other families is something my family does often.
- There are other families that understand my family’s situation.
- I share resources with one or more other parents‚ such as respite care and housework.
- There is at least one other parent I can go to for emotional support.
- There are other parents I can count on to help my family if I need it.
Subscale Formal Participation
- I feel isolated from other parents.
- I feel a sense of community with other parents who have a child with a disability.
- I try to act as an emotional support for other families.
- I serve as a veteran parent of a parent organization.
- I help lead an informal of formal support group for other parents.
- I am actively involved in a parent organization.
- I serve on an advisory board for a parent organization or service program.
a) attitudes of control and competence‚ (b) critical skills and knowledge‚ (c) formal participation in organizations‚ and (d) informal participation in social systems and relationships.
5= Strongly Agree‚ 4= Agree‚ 3= Neutral‚ 2= Disagree‚ 1= Strongly Disagree
Attitudes of control and competence (1‚ 8‚ 11‚ 14‚ 17‚ 24‚ 27‚ and 32); Cognitive appraisals of critical skills and knowledge (4‚ 7‚ 10‚ 13‚ 20‚ 23‚ 26‚ and 29); (c) formal participation (2‚ 5‚ 12‚ 15‚ 18‚ 21‚ 28‚ and 30); and (d) informal participation (3‚ 6‚ 9‚ 16‚ 19‚ 22‚ 25‚ and 31).
This instrument can be found at: Simmons C. A.‚ Lehmann P. (eds). Google Scholar & http://www.gbkwaliteit.nl/inc/getdocument.cfm?filename=upload/PsychologicalEmpowermentScale.pdf
Akey‚ T. M. ‚ & Turnbull‚ H. R. (1996). Effects of family support programs on parental empowerment. Teacher Education and Practice‚ 12(2)‚ 26-42.