Akey‚ 1996 & Akey et al‚ 2000
1. I have control over decisions that are made concerning my child.
2. I offer my services as a supporting parent in a parent organization.
3. I often get together with other parents to discuss a common problem affecting our families.
4. I communicate my ideas to others clearly.
5. I am involved in decision-making in a parent organization or service program.
6. I informally share information with other parents.
7. I advocate effectively for my child with professionals.
8. I feel in control of my life.
9. I spend time with other parents talking about my family.
10.I am able to explain myself until I make myself clear.
11.I feel like I have choices for my family.
12.I help lead a support group for other parents.
13.When I have to get something done‚ I get to work on it quickly.
14.Regardless of what other people do‚ I have control over how my family’s needs are met.
15.I hold a leadership role in a parent organization or service program.
16.I help other parents advocate for their child’s needs.
17.I have many choices about how to meet my family’s needs.
18.I participate in a support group for parents of children with a disability.
19.There is at least one other parent I can go to for emotional support.
20.I try to learn new skills even if they seem difficult.
21.I take an active role in improving services to families through a formal parent organization.
22.I try to act as an emotional support to other parents.
23.I think I make good decisions about what my family needs.
24.I have control over what happens in my family.
25.I have worked informally with other parents to address a need common to all of us.
26.I feel competent to meet my child’s needs.
27.I have the power to get what my family needs.
28.I am actively involved in a formal parent organization.
29.I think my decision-making skills are as good as other parents.
30.I am on an advisory board for a parent organization or service program.
31.I feel a sense of community with other parents who have a child with a disability.
32.I can usually solve problems that confront my family.
Subscale Attitudes of Control and Competence
– I think I make good choices about what my family needs.
– I believe I have the power to make positive changes for my family.
– I feel I make good decisions about what my family needs.
– I think my input has an important influence on how decisions are made about providing services to my family.
– I think I make good decisions about my family’s well-being.
– I believe that organizational skills are a strength of mine.
– I see myself as someone who usually achieves the goals I set for myself.
– When I have to get something done‚ I get right to work on it.
Subscale Cognitive appraisals of critical skills and knowledge
– If I do not do something well‚ I am likely to try harder the next time.
– I deal with the service system effectively.
– I know who to talk to when there is a problem with my family.
– I know how to use the resources available to my family.
– I know where to get information about the resources that my family needs.
– I effectively advocate for my child with professionals.
– I would be likely to speak out about an important policy issue concerning families.
– I understand how service systems and parent organizations work.
Subscale Informal Participation
– I actively keep up with what my family’s legal rights are.
– I know my rights as a parent of a child with a disability.
– I spend time with other parents talking about my family.
– Socializing with other families is something my family does often.
– There are other families that understand my family’s situation.
– I share resources with one or more other parents‚ such as respite care and housework.
– There is at least one other parent I can go to for emotional support.
– There are other parents I can count on to help my family if I need it.
Subscale Formal Participation
– I feel isolated from other parents.
– I feel a sense of community with other parents who have a child with a disability.
– I try to act as an emotional support for other families.
– I serve as a veteran parent of a parent organization.
– I help lead an informal of formal support group for other parents.
– I am actively involved in a parent organization.
– I serve on an advisory board for a parent organization or service program.
a) attitudes of control and competence‚ (b) critical skills and knowledge‚ (c) formal participation in organizations‚ and (d) informal participation in social systems and relationships.
5= Strongly Agree‚ 4= Agree‚ 3= Neutral‚ 2= Disagree‚ 1= Strongly Disagree
Attitudes of control and competence (1‚ 8‚ 11‚ 14‚ 17‚ 24‚ 27‚ and 32); Cognitive appraisals of critical skills and knowledge (4‚ 7‚ 10‚ 13‚ 20‚ 23‚ 26‚ and 29); (c) formal participation (2‚ 5‚ 12‚ 15‚ 18‚ 21‚ 28‚ and 30); and (d) informal participation (3‚ 6‚ 9‚ 16‚ 19‚ 22‚ 25‚ and 31).
Akey‚ T. M. (1996). Exploratory factor analysis and item analysis of the Psychological Empowerment Scale. Unpublished manuscript‚ Auburn University‚ AL.
Akey‚ T. M. ‚ & Turnbull‚ H. R. (1996). Effects of family support programs on parental empowerment. Teacher Education and Practice‚ 12(2)‚ 26-42.
Akey‚ T. M.‚ Marquis‚ J. G.‚ & Ross‚ M. E. (2000). Validation of scores on the psychological empowerment scale: A measure of empowerment for parents of children with a disability. Educational and Psychological Measurement‚ 60‚ 419–438.
Akey‚ Marquis‚ & Ross‚ (2000). Psychological Empowerment Scale. In: Simmons C. A.‚ Lehmann P. (eds). Tools for strengths-based assessment and evaluation‚ New York‚ NY: Springer‚ pp. 371-373. (2013). Google Scholar