Procedural Justice in Performance Appraisal


This measure, (Procedural Justice in Performance Appraisal) developed by Dulebohn and Ferris (1999), uses six items to assess the fairness of the procedures and process used for performance eval­uation. The measure focuses on the extent to which employees believe their supervisor used important and accurate information in appraising employee performance.


In Dulebohn and Ferris (1999), coefficient alpha was .86.


Procedural justice evaluations correlated positively with decision control, quality of supervisor relationship, voice opportunity, employee perfor­ mance ratings, and supervisor-influence tactics such as praising employees for accomplishments. Procedural justice evaluations correlated negatively with job-focused influence tactics, such as working harder (Dulebohn & Ferris, 1999). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the six items loaded on the procedural justice factor as anticipated and that procedural justice evaluations were empirically distinct from assessments of the quality of the employee’s supervisory relationship, opportunities for employees toques­ tion the basis for performance ratings (employee voice), and degree of con­ trol over performance rating decisions (Dulebohn & Ferris, 1999).


Dulebohn, J. H., & Ferris, G. R. (1999). The role of influence tactics in per­ ceptions of performance evaluations’ fairness. Academy of Management Journal, 42(3), 288-303. © 1999 by Academy of Management. Items were taken from Table 3, p. 295. Reproduced with permission of Academy of Management in the format textbook via Copyright Clearance Center.


Responses are obtained using a 4-point Likert-type scale where 1 = strongly disagree and 4 = strongly agree.

  1. The supervisor considered the important aspects of your work when rating you
  2. The supervisor rated you on how well you did your job, not on his/ her personal opinion of you
  3. The supervisor treated you with consideration when giving you your performance appraisal results
  4. The supervisor that evaluated you showed concern for your rights as an employee

Responses to the following items are obtained with separate 4-point re­ sponse scales where 1= not at all and 4 = very much.

  1. Overall, how hard did the supervisor who rated your performance try to be fair to you?
  2. Overall, how fairly were you treated by the supervisor who rated your performance?

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Mohammed Looti, PSYCHOLOGICAL SCALES (2023) Procedural Justice in Performance Appraisal. Retrieved from DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31575.96163