Distributive and Procedural Justice scale


These measures were developed by Joy and Witt (1992). They are parsimo­nious in that they each use only three items to assess distributive and proce­dural justice. The procedural justice measure focuses on the extent to which employees believe they have a voice in negotiating their job assignment, job duties, and performance appraisal results. The distributive justice measure focuses on the fairness in the decisions made by the organization concerning job assignments, job duties, and performance appraisals.


Coefficient alpha for distributive justice was .70. The alpha for procedural justice was .86 (Joy & Witt, 1992).


Distributive and procedural justice were positively correlated. The relation­ ship between distributive and procedural justice was smaller for employees when delays in gratification were shorter (Joy & Witt, 1992).


Joy, V. L., & Witt, L.A. (1992). Delay of gratification as a moderator of the procedural justice-distributive justice relationship. Group & Organization Management, 17(3), 297-308. Copyright© 1992 by Sage Publications, Inc. Items were taken from text, p. 301. Reprinted by permission of Sage Publi­ cations, Inc.


Responses are obtained on a 5-point Likert-type scale where 1 = definitely disagree and 5 = definitely agree.

Procedural justice items:

  1. I have considerable voice in determining my performance evaluation
  2. I have considerable voice in determining my job duties
  3. I have considerable voice in determining my job assignment

Distributive justice items:

  1. Most of my job assignments have been fair
  2. The treatment that I have generally received here at [company name] has been fair
  3. I have received fair performance evaluations

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Mohammed Looti, PSYCHOLOGICAL SCALES (2023) Distributive and Procedural Justice scale. Retrieved from https://scales.arabpsychology.com/s/distributive-and-procedural-justice-scale-2/. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31575.96163