Distributive and Procedural Justice measure


This measure (Distributive and Procedural Justice) was developed by Parker, Baltes, and Christiansen (1997). The measure uses three items to assess employee perceptions of fairness in the allocation of rewards and recognition as an indicator of distributive justice. It uses four items to assess employee perceptions of the extent to which employees have input and involvement in decisions as an indicator of both the “voice” and “choice” aspects of procedural justice. The measures assess judgments about the organization overall, rather than policies or practices in a specific area.


Coefficient alpha for distributive justice was .88. Coefficient alpha for procedural justice was .74 (Parker et al., 1997).


Across four subsamples, distributive and procedural justice correlated posi­tively. Both procedural and distributive justice correlated positively with career development opportunities, satisfaction with work, and loyalty to the organization (Parker et al., 1997). Confirmatory analysis showed that dis­tributive justice, procedural justice, judgments about career opportunities, satisfaction with work, organizational loyalty, and judgments about organi­zational support for affirmative action/equal employment opportunity (EEO) programs were empirically distinct (Parker et al., 1997).


Parker, C. P, Baltes, B. B., & Christiansen, N. D. (1997). Support for affirma­ tive action, justice perceptions, and work attitudes: A study of gender and racial-ethnic group differences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(3), 376 389 Items were taken from Table 1, p. 381. Copyright© 1997 by the Amer­ican Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission.


Responses are obtained using a 5-point Likert-type scale where 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree.

Procedural justice items:

  1. People involved in implementing decisions have a say in making the decisions
  2. Members of my work unit are involved in making decisions that directly affect their work
  3. Decisions are made on the basis of research, data, and technical criteria, as opposed to political concerns
  4. People with the most knowledge are involved in the resolution of problems

Distributive justice items:

  1. If a work unit performs well, there is appropriate recognition and rewards for all.
  2. If one performs well, there is appropriate recognition and reward.
  1. If one performs well, there is sufficient recognition and rewards