Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS)

Panic attacks are sudden outbursts of anxiety‚ accompanied by one or more of the following symptoms:
·         palpitations‚ pounding heart‚ or increased heart rate
·         sweating
·         trembling or shaking
·         dry mouth
·         difficulty breathing
·         feeling of choking
·         chest pain or discomfort
·         nausea or abdominal distress (churning in stomach)
·         feeling dizzy‚ unsteady‚ faint‚ or light-headed
·         feelings that objects are unreal (like in a dream)
·         fear of losing control‚ “going crazy‚” or passing out
·         fear of dying
·         hot flushes or cold chills
·         numbness‚ or tingling sensations
Panic attacks develop suddenly and increase in intensity within about 10 minutes.
 
1- How frequently did you have panic attacks?
·         no panic attacks in the past week
·         1 panic attack in the past week
·         2-3 panic attacks in the past week
·         4-6 panic attacks in the past week
·         more than 6 panic attacks in the past week
2- How severe were the panic attacks in the last week?
·         no panic attacks
·         attacks were usually mild
·         attacks were usually moderate
·         attacks were usually severe
·         attacks were usually extremely severe
3- How long did the panic attacks last?
·         no panic attacks
·         1 to 10 minutes
·         10 to 60 minutes
·         1 to 2 hours
·         over 2 hours
4- Were most of the attacks expected (occurring in feared situations) or unexpected (spontaneous)?
·         mostly unexpected (or no panic attacks)
·         more unexpected than expected
·         some unexpected‚ some expected
·         more expected than unexpected
·         mostly expected
5- In the past week‚ did you avoid certain situations because you feared ha‎ving a panic attack or a feeling of discomfort?
·         no avoidance (or my attacks don’t occur in specific situations
·         infrequent avoidance of feared situations
·         occasional avoidance of feared situations
·         frequent avoidance of feared situations
·         very frequent avoidance of feared situations
6- Please check the situation(s) you avoided or in which you developed panic attacks or a feeling of discomfort when you are not accompanied:
·         Airplanes
·         Subways (underground)
·         Buses‚ trains
·         Ships
·         Theaters‚ cinemas
·         Supermarkets
·         Standing in lines (queues)
·         Auditoriums‚ stadiums
·         Parties‚ social gatherings
·         Crowds
·         Restaurants
·         Museums
·         Elevators (lifts)
·         Enclosed spaces (tunnels)
·         Classrooms‚ lecture halls
·         Driving or riding in a car
·         Large rooms (lobbies)
·         Walking on the street
·         Fluids‚ wide streets‚ courtyards
·         High places
·         Crossing bridges
·         Travelling away from home
·         Staying home alone
·         Other
7- How important were the avoided situations?
·         unimportant (or no agoraphobia)
·         not very important
·         moderately important
·         very important
·         extremely important
8- In the past week‚ did you suffer from the fear of ha‎ving a panic attack (anticipatory anxiety or “fear of being afraid?”)
·         no anticipatory anxiety
·         infrequent fear of ha‎ving a panic attack
·         sometimes fear ha‎ving a panic attack
·         frequent fear of ha‎ving a panic attack
·         fear ha‎ving a panic attack all the time
9- How strong was this “fear of fear?”
·         none
·         mild
·         moderate
·         marked
·         extreme
10- In the past week‚ did panic attacks or agoraphobia lead to an impairment in your family relationships (partner‚ children‚ etc.)?
·         no impairment
·         mild impairment
·         moderate impairment
·         marked impairment
·         extreme impairment
11- In the past week‚ did panic attacks or agoraphobia lead to an impairment of your social life and leisure activities (for example‚ you weren’t able to go a film or party)?
·         no impairment
·         mild impairment
·         moderate impairment
·         marked impairment
·         extreme impairment
12- In the past week‚ did panic attacks or agoraphobia lead to an impairment of your work or household responsibilities?
·         no impairment
·         mild impairment
·         moderate impairment
·         marked impairment
·         extreme impairment
13- In the past week‚ did you worry about suffering harm from your panic attacks (for example‚ ha‎ving a heart attack or fainting)?
·         not true
·         hardly true
·         partly true
·         mostly true
·         definitely true
14- Do you sometimes believe that your doctor was wrong when he told you your symptoms (like rapid heart rate‚ tingling sensations‚ or shortness of breath) have a psychological cause? Do you believe the actually cause of these symptoms is an undiscovered physical problem?
·         not true (rather psychic disease)
·         hardly true
·         partly true
·         mostly true
·         definitely true (rather organic disease)
 
Panic attacks‚ agoraphobic avoidance‚ anticipatory anxiety‚ disability‚ and functional avoidance (health concerns)
Cronbach’s α .86 for the total score and .66-.82 for the subscales were reported. A mean score of 23.5 (SD = 10.3) was observed in a sample of 425 PD/AG patients (Bandelow‚ 1999).
 
This instrument can be found at: https://psychology-tools.com/
 

Bandelow B. 1995. Assessing the Efficacy of Treatments for Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia. II. The Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. International Clinical Psychopharmacology‚ 10(2)2;73-81.

Bandelow B. (1999) The Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS) Hogrefe & Huber Publishing.

Bandelow B‚ Broocks A‚ Pekrun G‚ et al. 2000. The use of the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (P & A) in a controlled clinical trial. Pharmacopsychiatry ‚33(5):174-81

R Lam‚ EE Michalak‚ RP Swinson. 2004. Assessment Scales in Depression‚ Mania And Anxiety‚ 136-140.