On-the-Job Behaviors scale


This measure (On-the-Job Behaviors) was developed by Lehman and Simpson (1992). It uses 22 items to describe on-the-job behaviors falling into four categories. The cate­gories are positive work behaviors, psychological withdrawal behaviors, physical withdrawal behaviors, and antagonistic work behaviors. Positive work behaviors (five items) include such things as volunteering for addi­tional work, working overtime, and attempting to change one’s job for the better. Psychological withdrawal behaviors (eight items) include thinking of being absent, daydreaming, excessive chatting, and concentrating on per­sonal tasks. Physical withdrawal behaviors (four items) include leaving early, taking long breaks, and sleeping at work. Antagonistic work behav­iors include arguing with co-workers, disobedience of supervisors, and gossiping.


Coefficient alpha values ranged from .68 to .70 for positive work behaviors, .62to .84 for psychological withdrawal behaviors, and .60 to .62 for antago­nistic behaviors. Coefficient alpha was .58 for the physical withdrawal behavior subscale (Cropanzano et , 1997).


Positive work behaviors correlated positively with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job involvement, job tension, and general fatigue. Antagonistic behaviors correlated positively with psychological withdrawal behaviors, organizational politics, job tension, general fatigue, and burnout. Psychological withdrawal behaviors also correlated positively with organi­zational politics, turnover intentions, general fatigue, and burnout. Psycho­ logical withdrawal behavior correlated negatively with perceived orga­nizational support, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job involvement (Cropanzano et al., 1997).


Lehman, W. E. K., & Simpson, D. D. (1992). Employee substance use and on-the-job behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 309-321. Items were taken from Table 1, p. 313. Copyright© 1992 by the American Psy­chological Association. Reprinted with permission.


Responses are obtained using a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = never and 7 = very often. Items are introduced with the statement “In the past twelve months, how often have you ?”

Positive work behaviors:

  1. Done more work than required
  2. Volunteered to work overtime
  3. Made attempts to change work conditions
  4. Negotiated with supervisors to improve job
  5. Tried to think of ways to do the job better

Psychological withdrawal behaviors:

  1. Thought of being absent
  2. Chatted with co-workers about nonwork topics
  3. Left work situation for unnecessary reasons
  4. Daydreamed
  5. Spent work time on personal matters
  6. Put less effort into the job than should have
  7. Thought of leaving current job
  8. Let others do your work

Physical withdrawal behaviors:

  1. Left work early without permission
  2. Taken longer lunch or rest break than allowed
  3. Taken supplies or equipment without permission
  4. Fallen asleep at work

Antagonistic work behaviors:

  1. Reported others for breaking rules or policies
  2. Filed formal complaints
  3. Argued with co-workers
  4. Disobeyed supervisor’s instructions
  5. Spread rumors or gossip about co-workers