Deviant Behaviors scale


This measure, (Deviant Behaviors) developed by Aquino, Lewis, and Bradfield (1999), uses 14 items to describe two categories of deviant employee behaviors. The two categories are interpersonal deviance and organizational deviance. Interper­sonal deviant behaviors inflict harm upon other individuals and include such actions as making an ethnic or racial slur against a co-worker or making an obscene gesture at a co-worker. Organizational deviance includes behaviors that are directed at the organization itself or its systems, such as calling in sick when not really ill, lying about the number of hours worked, or purposely ignoring a supervisor’s instructions.


Coefficient alpha value for interpersonal deviance was .73. Alpha for organizational deviance was .76 (Aquino, Lewis, & Bradfield, 1999).


Interpersonal deviance correlated positively with organizational deviance and employee negative affect. Interpersonal deviance correlated negatively with distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactive justice. Organi­zational deviance also correlated positively with employee negative affect. Organizational deviance correlated negatively with interactive justice (Aquino, Lewis, & Bradfield, 1999). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the two dimensions were empirically distinct from one another and dis­ tinct from distributive, interactive, and procedural justice (Aquino, Lewis, & Bradfield, 1999).


Aquino, K., Lewis, M. U., & Bradfield, M. (1999). Justice constructs, negative affectivity, and employee deviance: A proposed model and empirical test. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 1073-1091. Items were taken from Table 1, p. 1082. Copyright© 1999. Reproduced by permission of John Wiley & Sons Limited.


Responses are obtained using a 5-point Likert-type scale where 1 = never, 2 = one to three times, 3 = four to ten times, 4 = eleven to twenty times, and 5 = more than twenty times.

Interpersonal deviance items:

  1. Made an ethnic, racial, or religious slur against a co-worker.
  2. Swore at a co-worker.
  3. Refused to talk to a co-worker.
  4. Gossiped about my supervisor.
  5. Made an obscene comment or gesture at a co-worker.
  6. Teased a co-worker in front of other employees.

Organizational deviance items:

  1. Intentionally arrived late for work
  2. Called in sick when I was not really ill.
  3. Took undeserved breaks to avoid work.
  4. Made unauthorized use of organizational property.
  5. Left work early without permission
  6. Lied about the number of hours I worked
  7. Worked on a personal matter on the job instead of working for my employer.
  8. Purposely ignored my supervisor’s instructions.

This content is licensed under a CC-BY license. The CC-BY licenses grant rights of use the scales in your studies (the measurement instrument and its documentation), but do not replace copyright. This remains with the copyright holder, and you have to cite us as the source.

Mohammed Looti, PSYCHOLOGICAL SCALES (2023) Deviant Behaviors scale. Retrieved from DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31575.96163