Goal and Process Clarity scale


This measure was developed and tested by Sawyer (1992). It describes two dimensions thought to make up role ambiguity. One dimension describes clarity about a job’s outcome goals and objectives. The other dimension describes clarity or certainty about a job’s process or how it should be performed.


Composite reliability estimates (analogous to coefficient alpha) were .92 for goal clarity and .90 for process clarity (Sawyer, 1992).


Exploratory factor analysis found the items loaded on two distinct factors. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the two factors were empirically distinct (Sawyer, 1992). In a structural equation model, autonomy, task feed­ back, and feedback from others (supervisors and co-workers) were anteced­ents to process clarity. Recognition was positively related to goal clarity, goal clarity was directly related to satisfaction, and process clarity was indi­rectly related to job satisfaction through goal clarity (Sawyer, 1992).


Sawyer, J. E. (1992). Goal and process clarity: Specification of multiple constructs of role ambiguity and a structural equation model of their ante­ cedents and consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(2), 130-143. Items were taken from Table I, p. 135. Copyright© 1992 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission.


Responses are obtained using a 6-point Likert-type scale where 1 = very uncertain and 6 = very certain. Respondents are asked to indicate the degree of certainty about each of the following items:

Goal clarity items:

  1. My duties and responsibilities
  2. The goals and objectives for my job
  3. How my work relates to the overall objectives of my work unit
  4. The expected results of my work
  5. What aspects of my work will lead to a positive evaluation?

Process clarity items:

  1. How to divide my time among the tasks required of my job
  2. How to schedule my workday
  3. How to determine the appropriate procedures for each work task
  4. The procedures I use to do my job are correct and proper.
  5. Considering all your work tasks, how certain are you that you know the best ways to do these tasks.

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Mohammed Looti, PSYCHOLOGICAL SCALES (2023) Goal and Process Clarity scale. Retrieved from https://scales.arabpsychology.com/s/goal-and-process-clarity-scale/. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31575.96163