Factor 1: Inequitable Gender Norms
It is the man who decides what type of sex to have.
A woman’s most important role is to take care of her home and cook for her family.
Men need sex more than women do.
You don’t talk about sex‚ you just do it.
Women who carry condoms on them are “easy.”
A man needs other women‚ even if things with his wife are fine.
There are times when a woman deserves to be beaten.
Changing diapers‚ giving the kids a bath‚ and feeding the kids are the mother’s responsibility.
It is a woman’s responsibility to avoid getting pregnant.
A man should have the final word about decisions in his home.
Men are always ready to have sex.
A woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together.
If a woman cheats on a man‚ it is okay for him to hit her.
If someone insults me‚ I will defend my reputation‚ with force if I have to.
I would be outraged if my wife asked me to use a condom.
It is okay for a man to hit his wife if she won’t have sex with him.
I would never have a gay friend.
Factor 2: Equitable Gender Norms
A couple should decide together if they want to have children.
In my opinion‚ a woman can suggest using condoms just like a man can.
If a guy gets a woman pregnant‚ the child is the responsibility of both.
A man should know what his partner likes during sex.
It is important that a father is present in the lives of his children‚ even if he is no longer with
A man and a woman should decide together what type of contraceptive to use.
It is important to have a male friend that you can talk about your problems with.
Items that were dropped (but may still be relevant in other circumstances)
It disgusts me when I see a man acting like a woman.
Women should be virgins until they get married.
If a man cheats on a woman‚ it is okay for her to hit him.
A man always deserves the respect of his wife and children.
Above all‚ a man needs respect.
Real men only have sex with women.
Men can take care of children just as well as women can.
Women have the same right as men to study and to work outside of the house.
I think it is ridiculous for a boy to play with dolls.
If a man sees another man beating a woman‚ he should stop it.
If she wants‚ a woman can have more than one sexual partner.
This instrument can be found on pages 40-41 of Measures for the assessment of dimensions of violence against women: A compendium Compiled by Michael Flood‚ available online at: http://www.svri.org/measures.pdf
Pulerwitz‚ Julie‚ and Gary Barker. (2008). Measuring attitudes toward gender norms among young men in Brazil: Development and psychometric evaluation of the GEM Scale. Men and Masculinities‚ 10: 322–338.