Gender Attitude Inventory (GAI)

(Endorsement of) female superiority
1.    On average‚ women are better than men.*
2.    Women are a creative force‚ and men are a destructive force‚ in the world today.*
3.    Women are more helpful than men.*
4.    Compared to women‚ men have many undesirable qualities.*
5.    Women are morally superior to men.*
6.    Compared to women‚ men tend to be cruel.*
(Acceptance of) traditional stereotypes
7.    Men are more competitive than women.*
8.    Men are generally more adventurous than women are.*
9.    Men are generally more egotistical than women.*
10.On the average‚ men are more arrogant than women.*
11.Women are more gentle than men.*
12.Men are more independent than women.*
13.Men are more sure of what they can do than women are.*
14.Compared to men‚ women tend to be gullible.*
15.Compared to men‚ women are more able to devote themselves completely to others.*
16.Compared to men‚ women tend to be weak.*
(Condemnation of) homosexuality
17.Male homosexuality is merely a different kind of life style which should not be condemned.
18.Just as in other species‚ male homosexuality is a natural expression of sexuality in human men.
19.Male homosexuality is a perversion.*
20.State laws regulating private‚ consenting lesbian behavior should be loosened.
21.Female homosexuality is a sin.*
22.Homosexual behavior between two men is just plain wrong.*
23.Female homosexuality itself is no problem‚ but what society makes of it can be a problem.
24.Lesbians just can’t fit into our society.*
(Disapproval of) female sexual initiative
25.I approve of a woman taking the first step to start a relationship with a man.
26.The man should always be the one to initiate sex with a woman.*
27.I approve of a woman calling a man she is interested in.
28.The initiative in asking for a date should come either from the man or the woman.
29.In a relationship‚ the woman as well as the man should be free to initiate sexual activity.
30.I approve of a woman taking the aggressive role during sexual intercourse.
31.Women should be free to express themselves sexually.
32.The initiative in dating should come from the man.*
33.Women should take the passive role in courtship.*
34.A woman should allow the man to take ch‎arge of their sexual relationship.*
35.Women should have the same sexual freedom as men.
(Disapproval of) female casual sex
36.It is acceptable for a woman to have sex with a casual acquaintance.
37.I would have no respect for a woman who engages in sexual relationships without any emotional involvement.*
38.It is all right for a woman to have sexual intercourse with someone she knows well and likes but does not love.
(Endorsement of) chivalry
39.Men should continue to show courtesies to women such as holding open the door or helping them on with their coats.*
40.Special attentions like standing up for a woman who comes into a room or giving her a seat of a crowded bus are outmoded and should be discontinued.
41.Chivalrous gestures toward women on the part of men should be encouraged.*
42.The special courtesies extended to women are demeaning because they keep women feeling helpless and in their place.
43.A man should protect a woman from physical harm‚ even at his own expense.*
44.Chivalry is generally demeaning to women.
45.In an emergency‚ women and children should be evacuated first.*
(Acceptance of) male heterosexual violence
46.Most of the women who get raped have invited it in some way.*
47.Women provoke rape by their appearance or behavior.*
48.In most cases‚ when a woman gets raped‚ she was asking for it.*
49.In most cases of wife beating‚ the woman is just as much at fault as the man.*
50.Most ch‎arges of “wife beating” are made up by the woman to get back at her husband.*
51.If a woman is making out and she let’s things get out of hand‚ it’s her own fault if the man forces sex on her.*
52.In forcible rape‚ the victim never causes the crime.
53.A man is sometimes justified in hitting his wife.*
(Endorsement of) family roles
54.It’s all right for the woman to have a career and the man to stay home with the children.
55.I approve of a wife entering the labor force and leaving her husband at home to care for the children.
56.I would not respect a man if he decided to stay at home and take care of his children while his wife worked.*
57.The wife should have primary responsibility for taking care of the home and children.*
58.A woman should work only if she can do so without interfering with her domestic duties.*
59.The husband should have primary responsibility for support of the family.*
60.In marriage‚ the husband should take the lead in decision making.*
61.Working women should not be expected to sacrifice their careers for the sake of home duties to any greater extent than men.
62.Women should be concerned with their duties of childrearing and house-tending‚ rather than with desires for professional and business careers.*
63.As head of the household‚ the husband should have more responsibility for the family’s financial plans than his wife.*
64.Care of children should be shared equally by both spouses.
(Belief in) differential work roles
65.There are almost no jobs which should be closed to women because of the physical requirements.
66.Many jobs should be closed to women because of the physical requirements.*
67.Men and women are better suited to different kinds of occupations due to physical strength.*
68.All occupations should be equally accessible to both men and women.
69.There are many jobs in which men should be given preference over women in being hired or promoted.*
70.There are some professions and types of business that are more suitable for men than women.*
71.In today’s world the idea of “women’s work” and “men’s work” makes no sense.
72.It is appropriate to divide work into “men’s work” and “women’s work.*
73.A woman’s work and a man’s work should be fundamentally different.*
(Rejection of) female political leadership
74.It would be appropriate for a woman to be President of the United States if she were qualified.
75.I would vote for a politically qualified woman to be President of the United States.
76.Women‚ as well as men‚ should be found in top political offices.
77.Women should be included on all levels of political activity on an equal basis with men.
78.There are many good reasons why a woman should not be President of the United States.*
79.Women are too emotional to fill high positions in government.*
80.The political and moral leadership of a community should remain largely in the hands of men.*
(Opposition to) women’s rights
81.I can really understand why there needs to be a women’s liberation movement.
82.The Equal Rights Amendment is unnecessary.*
83.Only if women organize and work together can anything really be done about sex discrimination.
84.It is not enough for a woman to be successful herself‚ women must work together to change laws and customs that are unfair to all women.
85.Women need to unite and work together to achieve equal political and social rights in this country.
86.Passage of legislation to further women’s rights is necessary.
87.I do not agree with the strategies of the women’s liberation movement.*
88.I am sympathetic to the goals of women’s liberation.
89.I favor the Equal Rights Amendment which would prohibit legal discrimination on the basis of sex.
90.The women’s liberation movement exaggerates the problems faced by women in American society.*
(Endorsement of) individual action
91.Women can best overcome sex discrimination by pursuing their individual career goals.*
92.The best way to handle problems of sex discrimination is for each woman to make sure she gets the best training possible for what she wants to do.*
93.Most women have only themselves to blame for not doing better in life.*
94.The best way for women to overcome sex discrimination is by working on their own to prove their abilities.*
95.Women have been offered plenty of opportunities to get ahead. If they don’t make the most of them‚ it’s their problem.*
96.The truly qualified woman in a career has no trouble achieving recognition and success.*
(Opposition to) funded day care
97.Government-sponsored child care centers would be a big waste of money.*
98.Mothers who work have no right to expect the government to pay for free child care centers.*
99.There should be free child-care centers to help mothers who have to work.
100. Financial support for day care should come from parents and not from the government.* [Financial support for day care centers should be available to all.]
101. Government-sponsored child care centers should be available to all.
102. The issue of comprehensive day care for all should become a high priority for politicians and lawmakers.
103. There should be easily available child-care so that women can take jobs.
(Opposition to) abortion
104. Abortion should be treated legally as a form of murder.*
105. I favor a Constitutional amendment that would prohibit all abortions.*
106. Public hospitals should offer abortion to any woman requesting it.
107. Abortion on demand should be available to all women.
108. Every woman has the right to decide whether or not she should have an abortion.
109. A woman who is true to her maternal instincts would not have an abortion.*
Endorsement of female superiority (alpha males and female 0.74‚ 0.79) ‚ Acceptance of traditional stereotypes (alpha males and female 0.86‚ 0.83)‚ Condemnation of homosexuality (alpha males and female 090‚ 0.91)‚ Disapproval of female sexual initiative (alpha males and female 0.74‚ 0.79)‚ Disapproval of female casual sex (alpha males and female 0.79‚ 0.81)‚ Endorsement of chivalry (alpha males and female 0.84‚ 0.57)‚ Acceptance of male heterosexual violence (alpha males and female 0.96‚ 0.79)‚ Endorsement of family roles (alpha males and female 0.89‚ 0.76)‚ Belief in differential work roles (alpha males and female 0.87‚ 0.84)‚ Rejection of female political leadership (alpha males and female 0.94‚ 0.66)‚ Opposition to women’s rights (alpha males and female 0.78‚ 0.84)‚ Endorsement of individual action (alpha males and female 0.74‚ 0.65)‚ Opposition to funded day care (alpha males and female 0.80‚ 0.79)‚ and Opposition to abortion (alpha males and female 0.83‚ 0.79)
STEREOTYPES (16 item) (alpha males and female 88 .89)‚ SEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS (14 item) (alpha males and female .81 .86) ‚ SOCIETAL ORGANIZAJION (37 item) (alpha males and female 0.95‚ 0.9)
1(strongly agree) to 7 (strongly disagree)

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Ashmore‚ R. D.‚ & Del Boca‚ E K. (1986b). Toward a social psychology of female-male relations. In R. D. Ashmore & E K. Del Boca (Eds.)‚ The socialpsychology of female-male relations: A critical analysis of central concepts. New York: Academic Press.

Ashmore‚ R. D.‚ & Del Boca‚ E K. (1987). The development and validation of a structured inventory to assess the multiple components of gender-related verbal attitudes: A progress report. Unpublished manuscript‚ Rutgers University‚ New Brunswick‚ NJ.

Ashmore‚ R. D.‚ Del Boca‚ F. K.‚ & Bilder‚ S. M. (1995). Construction and validation of the Gender Attitude Inventory‚ a structured inventory to assess multiple dimensions of gender attitudes. Sex Roles‚ 32‚ 753-785.

Ashmore‚ R. D.‚ Del Boca‚ E K.‚ & Wohlers‚ A. J. (1986). Gender stereotypes. In R. D. Ashmore & E K. Del Boca (Eds.)‚ The social psychology of female-male relations: A critical analysis of central concepts. New York: Academic Press.