Gender Identity and Erotic Preference in Males

Gender Identity and Erotic Preference in Males‌‌‌‌

KURT FREUND1 AND RAY BLANCHARD,2 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

This test package includes seven scales. Six of these are concerned with the assessment of erotic preference and erotic anomalies; one is concerned with the assessment of gender identity. This last instrument, in its present form and in earlier versions, has a longer history in the published literature than the other six. All seven instruments are intended for use with adult males.

The Feminine Gender Identity Scale (FGIS, see Exhibit 1) was developed to measure that “femininity” occur- ring in homosexual males (Freund, Langevin, Satterberg, & Steiner, 1977; Freund, Nagler, Langevin, Zajac, & Steiner, 1974). There were two reasons to develop a special instrument to measure this attribute rather than rely upon conventional masculinity-femininity tests. First, conventional masculinity-femininity tests are usually assembled from items that are differentially endorsed by males and females. Such differential endorsement may reflect other differences between the sexes besides gender identity (e.g., body build and upbringing). Moreover, femininity in homosexual males need not be identical with what psychologically differentiates males from females. Therefore, rather than using biological females as a reference group, Freund identified the “feminine” behavioral patterns and self-reports of homosexual male-to-female transsexuals as the extreme of that femininity observable in homosexual males. Accordingly, feminine gender identity in males was conceived as a continuous variable, inferable from the extent of an individual’s departure from the usual male pattern of behavior toward the pattern typical of male-to- female transsexuals.

The second reason for developing a new instrument was that conventional masculinity-femininity scales did not include those items pointed out by the classical sex- ologists (e.g., Hirschfeld and Krafft-Ebing) as indicative of femininity in homosexual males (e.g., whether, as a child, the subject had preferred to be in the company of males or females; whether he had preferred girls’ or boys’ games and toys). In Freund’s clinical experience, such developmental items seemed to be of particular importance.

The item content of the six erotic interest scales was derived from Freund’s clinical experience. The Androphilia and Gynephilia Scales (Exhibits 2 and 3) were originally assembled to measure the extent of bisexuality reported by androphilic males and to measure the erotic interest in other persons reported by patients with cross-gender identity problems. The term androphilia refers to erotic attraction to physically mature males, and gynephilia, to erotic‌

attraction to physically mature females. The Heterosexual Experience Scale (Exhibit 4) was intended to assess sexual experience with women, as opposed to sexual interest in them. The Fetishism, Masochism, and Sadism Scales (Exhibits 5–7) were constructed from face-valid items as self-report measures of these anomalous erotic preferences.

The interested reader should note the availability of certain closely related instruments. We have developed a companion instrument for the FGIS, the Masculine Gender Identity Scale for Females (Blanchard & Freund, 1983), presented elsewhere in this volume. Modifications of the Androphilia and Gynephilia Scales specifically intended for male patients with gender identity disorders have been developed by Blanchard (1985a, 1985b). Blanchard (1985a) includes a scale for measuring cross-gender fetish- ism (roughly transvestism), also reprinted in this volume.

Description

All seven scales are presented in full (see Exhibits 1–7). Most of the scales are a mixture of dichotomous and mul- tiple-choice items. The number of items in each scale is summarized in Table 1, along with the types and numbers of subjects used in item analysis, the alpha reliability of each scale, and the proportion of total variance accounted for by the largest single factor found with principal components analysis.

With the exception of the FGIS, all scales are appropriate for any adult male with sufficient reading comprehension. Part A of the FGIS, which was constructed by selecting items differentially endorsed by adult gynephiles and (non- transsexual) androphiles may also be administered to any adult male.

Parts B and C of the FGIS were constructed from items differentially endorsed by transsexual and nontranssexual homosexuals. Part B consists of three items, which also appear on the Androphilia Scale, and which presuppose homosexuality. Part B is only appropriate for homosexual subjects; hence the full scale (Parts A, B, and C) may only be administered to homosexual subjects: androphilic transsexuals, androphiles, homosexual hebephiles (men who erotically prefer pubescent males), or homosexual pedophiles (men who erotically prefer male children). Part C consists of items aimed at transsexualism and is appropriate for males presenting with any cross-gender syndrome, including transvestism.

TABLE 1‌
Psychometric Information‌
Scalea
N of items
Subjects used in item analysisb
N of subjects
Alphac
% Varianced
FGI(A)
19
CGI patients; andro patients; courtship disorder; sadists
743
.93
43.8
FGI(BC)
10
CGI patients; andro patients
332
.89
51.4
Andro
13
CGI patients; andro controls; andro patients; homo pedohebe
437
.93
59.8
Gyne
9
CGI patients; hetero controls; andro controls; andro patients; homo pedohebe; hetero
pedohebe
605
.85
40.4
Het Exp
6
As above
606
.82
47.8
Fetish
8
CGI patients; hetero controls; andro controls; homo pedohebe; hetero pedohebe;
courtship disorder; sadists; hyperdominants; masochists
444
.91
59.6
Maso
11
As above
491
.83
33.7
Sadism
20
As above
491
.87
28.0
Note. The FGI Scale data were prepared for this table by Blanchard. The data for the other six scales are from Freund, Steiner, and Chan, 1982.‌
aFGI(A), Feminine Gender Identity Scales for Males—Part A; FGI(BC), Feminine Gender Identity Scale for Males—Parts B and C combined; Andro, Androphilia Scale; Gyne, Gynephilia Scale; Het Exp, Heterosexual Experience Scale; Fetish, Fetishism Scale; Maso, Masochism Scale; Sadism, Sadism Scale.
bCGI, patients with cross-gender identity; courtship disorder, patients with voyeurism, exhibitionism, toucherism, frotteurism, obscene telephone calling, or the preferential rape pattern; pedohebe, pedophiles or hebephiles; hyperdominants, borderline sadists.
cAlpha reliability coefficient.
dPercentage of total variance accounted for by the strongest principal component.

Response Mode and Timing

Subjects check one and only one response option for each item. The shortest scale takes only a few minutes to complete; the longest (the full FGIS) takes about 15 minutes. Subjects are permitted to ask for clarification on any item whose meaning they do not understand.

Scoring

Scoring weights for each response option of each item fol- low that option in parentheses in the Exhibits. The total scores for each scale (and for the three subscales of the FGIS) are obtained by totaling the subject’s scores for each item in that scale (or subscale). For all scales, high scores indicate that the relevant attribute (e.g., sadism, feminine gender identity) is strongly present, and low scores indicate that it is absent.

Reliability

The alpha reliability coefficient of each scale is presented in Table 1. Test-retest reliabilities have never been computed.

Validity

The main line of evidence for the construct validity of the FGIS is the demonstration of reliable group differences among heterosexual, nontranssexual homosexual, and transsexual homosexual males. Two studies have cross-validated Part A of the most recent version of the FGIS (Freund et al., 1977) and have also shown the relative insensitivity of the scale to socioeconomic variables. Freund, Scher, Chan, and Ben-Aron (1982) found no difference in the FGIS scores of gynephilic prisoners (whose modal education was less than high school graduation) and gynephilic university students; both groups produced lower FGIS scores than a sample of androphilic volunteers, who, in turn, scored lower than androphilic male-to-female transsexuals.

Part A scores on the FGIS have also been shown to enter into orderly relationships with a variety of other sexological variables and questionnaire measures. Freund, Scher et al. (1982) found a positive correlation between the degree of homosexuals’ femininity and the age group to which they are most attracted sexually. The androphilic subjects in this study produced higher FGIS scores than the homosexual hebephiles or pedophiles. The homosexual pedophiles did not differ in feminine gender identity from gynephiles. Freund and Blanchard (1983) found that those androphiles who produced the highest (most feminine) FGIS scores also tended to report the worst childhood relationships with their fathers. Blanchard, McConkey, Roper, and Steiner (1983) found a high negative correlation (–.71) between Part A of the FGIS and retrospectively reported boyhood aggressiveness, defined as a generalized disposition to engage in physically combative or competitive interactions with male peers.

Freund (1977) reported a moderate correlation (.46) between Part A of the FGIS and the MMPI Masculinity- Femininity (Mf) Scale, and Hooberman (1979) reported a similar correlation (.52) between Part A of the 1974 version of the FGIS and the femininity scale of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, 1981). Hooberman did not report the correlation between the FGIS and the BSRI mascu- linity scale; presumably it was lower and not statistically significant. Guloien (1983) found a statistically significant negative correlation (–.20) between Part A of the FGIS and Jackson’s (1974) social desirability scale in a mixed sample of heterosexual and homosexual male university students; Blanchard, Clemmensen, and Steiner (1985) found a sig- nificant positive correlation (.37) between Part A and the Crowne-Marlowe (1964) Social Desirability Scale among male patients at a gender identity clinic, most of whom were seeking sex reassignment surgery.

Freund, Scher et al. (1982) found that the Gynephilia and Heterosexual Experience Scales differentiated between two groups of androphiles, one claiming considerable, the other only minimal, bisexuality. The two scales discriminated between groups about equally well. Freund, Steiner, and Chan (1982) reported good agreement between clinicians’ assessment of erotic partner preference (hetero- sexual vs. homosexual) and assessment by means of the Androphilia and Gynephilia Scales. They also found, among the various syndromes of cross-gender identity that they investigated, group differences in all seven measures presented here. Of particular interest was the confirmation they obtained with the Sadism, Masochism, and Fetishism Scales of their clinical impression that these anomalies tend to be differentially associated with heterosexual-type cross-gender identity.

Feminine Gender Identity Scale for Males

Part A

    1. Between the ages of 6 and 12, did you prefer

      1. to play with boys (0)

      2. to play with girls (2)

      3. didn’t make any difference (0)

      4. not to play with other children (1)

      5. don’t remember (1)

    2. Between the ages of 6 and 12, did you

      1. prefer boys’ games and toys (soldiers, football, etc.) (0)

      2. prefer girls’ games and toys (dolls, cooking, sewing, etc.) (2)

      3. like or dislike both about equally (1)

      4. had no opportunity to play games or with toys (1)

    3. In childhood, were you very interested in the work of a garage mechanic? Was this

      1. prior to age 6 (0)

      2. between ages 6 and 12 (0)

      3. probably in both periods (0)

      4. do not remember that I was very interested in the work of a garage mechanic (1)

    4. Between the ages of 6 and 14, which did you like more, romantic stories or adventure stories?

      1. liked romantic stories more (2)

      2. liked adventure stories more (0)

      3. it did not make any difference (1)

    5. Between the ages of 6 and 12, did you like to do jobs or chores which are usually done by women?

      1. yes (2)

      2. no (0)

      3. don’t remember (1)

    6. Between the ages of 13 and 16, did you like to do jobs or chores which are usually done by women?

      1. yes (2)

      2. no (0)

      3. don’t remember (1)

    7. Between the ages of 6 and 12, were you a leader in boys’ games or other activities?

      1. more often than other boys (0)

      2. less often than other boys (1)

      3. about the same, or don’t know (0)

      4. did not partake in children’s games and/or other activities (1)

    8. Between the ages of 6 and 12, when you read a story did you imagine that you were

      1. the male in the story (cowboy, detective, soldier, explorer, etc.) (0)

      2. the female in the story (the girl being saved, etc.) (2)

      3. the male sometimes and the female other times (1)

      4. neither the male nor the female (1)

      5. did not read stories (1)

    9. In childhood or at puberty, did you like mechanics magazines? Was this

      1. between ages 6 and 12 (0)

      2. between ages 12 and 14 (0)

      3. probably in both periods (0)

      4. do not remember that I liked mechanics magazines (1)

    10. Between the ages of 6 and 12, did you wish you had been born a girl instead of a boy

      1. often (2)

      2. occasionally (1)

      3. never (0)

    11. Between the ages of 13 and 16, did you wish you had been born a girl instead of a boy

      1. often (2)

      2. occasionally (1)

      3. never (0)

    12. Since the age of 17, have you wished you had been born a girl instead of a boy

      1. often (2)

      2. occasionally (1)

      3. never (0)

    13. Do you think your appearance is

      1. very masculine (0)

      2. masculine (0)

      3. a little feminine (1)

      4. quite feminine (2)

    14. In childhood, did you sometimes imagine yourself a well-known sports figure, or did you wish you would become one? Was this

      1. prior to age 6 (0)

      2. between ages 6 and 12 (0)

      3. probably in both periods (0)

      4. do not remember such fantasies (1)

    15. In childhood fantasies did you sometimes wish you could go hunting big game? Was this

      1. prior to age 6 (0)

      2. between ages 6 and 12 (0)

      3. probably in both periods (0)

      4. do not remember such fantasies (1)

    16. In childhood fantasies did you sometimes imagine yourself as being a policeman or soldier? Was this

      1. prior to age 6 (0)

      2. between ages 6 and 12 (0)

      3. probably in both periods (0)

      4. do not remember that I had such a fantasy (1)

    17. In childhood was there ever a period in which you wished you would, when adult, become a dressmaker or dress designer?

      1. prior to age 6 (1)

      2. between ages 6 and 12 (1)

      3. probably in both periods (1)

      4. do not remember having this desire (0)

    18. In childhood fantasies did you sometimes imagine yourself driving a racing car? Was this

      1. prior to age 6 (0)

      2. between ages 6 and 12 (0)

      3. probably in both periods (0)

      4. do not remember having this fantasy (1)

    19. In childhood did you ever wish to become a dancer? Was this

      1. prior to age 6 (1)

      2. between ages 6 and 12 (1)

      3. probably in both periods (1)

      4. do not remember having this desire (0) Part B

    20. What kind of sexual contact with a male would you have preferred on the whole, even though you may not have done it?

      1. inserting your privates between your partner’s upper legs (thighs) (0)

      2. putting your privates into your partner’s rear end (0)

      3. you would have preferred one of those two modes but you cannot decide which one (0)

      4. your partner putting his privates between your upper legs (thighs) (1)

      5. your partner putting his privates into your rear end (2)

      6. you would have preferred one of these two latter modes but you cannot decide which one (1)

      7. you would have liked all four modes equally well (1)

      8. you would have preferred some other mode of sexual contact (1)

      9. had no desire for physical contact with males (exclude subject)

    21. What qualities did you like in males to whom you were sexually attracted?

      1. strong masculine behavior (2)

      2. slightly masculine behavior (1)

      3. rather feminine behavior (0)

      4. did not feel sexually attracted to males (exclude subject)

    22. Would you have preferred a partner

      1. who was willing to have you lead him (0)

      2. who was willing to lead you (2)

      3. you didn’t care (1)

      4. did not feel sexually attracted to males (exclude subject) Part C

    23. Between the ages of 6 and 12, did you put on women’s underwear or clothing

      1. once a month or more, for about a year or more (2)

      2. (less often, but) several times a year for about 3 years or more (1)

      3. very seldom did this during this period (0)

      4. never did this during this period (0)

      5. don’t remember (0)

    24. Between the ages of 13 and 16, did you put on women’s underwear or clothing

      1. once a month or more, for about a year or more (2)

      2. (less often, but) several time a year for about 2 years or more (1)

      3. very seldom did this during this period (0)

      4. never did this during this period (0)

    25. Since the age of 17, did you put on women’s underwear or clothing

      1. once a month or more, for at least a year (2)

      2. (less often, but) several times a year for at least 2 years (1)

      3. very seldom did this during this period (0)

      4. never did this during this period (0)

    26. Have you ever wanted to have an operation to change you physically into a women?

      1. yes (2)

      2. no (0)

      3. unsure (1)

    27. If you have ever wished to have a female body rather than a male one, was this

      1. mainly to please men but also for your own satisfaction (2)

      2. mainly for your own satisfaction but also to please men (2)

      3. entirely for your own satisfaction (2)

      4. entirely to please men (1)

      5. about equally to please men and for your own satisfaction (2)

      6. have never wanted to have a female body (0)

    28. Have you ever felt like a woman

      1. only if you were wearing at least one piece of female underwear or clothing (1)

      2. while wearing at least one piece of female underwear or clothing and only occasionally at other times also (1)

      3. at all times and for at least 1 year (female clothing or not) (2)

      4. never felt like a woman (0)

    29. When completely dressed in male clothing (underwear, etc.) would you

      1. have a feeling of anxiety because of this (2)

      2. have no feeling of anxiety but have another kind of unpleasant feeling because of this (2)

      3. have no unpleasant feelings to do with above (0)

Androphilia Scale

  1. About how old were you when you first made quite strong efforts to see males who were undressed or scantily dressed?

    1. younger than 12 (1)

    2. between 12 and 16 (1)

    3. older than 16 (1)

    4. never (0)

  2. About how old were you when you first felt sexually attracted to males?

    1. younger than 6 (1)

    2. between 6 and 11 (1)

    3. between 12 and 16 (1)

    4. older than 16 (1)

    5. never (0)

  3. Since what age have you been sexually attracted to males only?

    1. younger than 6 (1)

    2. between 6 and 11 (1)

    3. between 12 and 16 (1)

    4. older than 16 (1)

    5. never (0)

  4. Since the age of 16, have you ever fallen in love with a person of the male sex?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  5. How old were you when you first kissed a male because you felt sexually attracted to him?

    1. younger than 12 (1)

    2. between 12 and 16 (1)

    3. older than 16 (1)

    4. never (0)

  6. Since age 12, how old were you when you first touched the privates of a male to whom you felt sexually attracted?

    1. between 12 and 16 (1)

    2. older than 16 (1)

    3. never (0)

  7. What kind of sexual contact with a male would you have preferred on the whole, even though you may not have done it?

    1. inserting your privates between your partner’s upper legs (thighs) (1)

    2. putting your privates into your partner’s rear end (1)

    3. you would have preferred one of those two modes but you cannot decide which one (1)

    4. your partner putting his privates between your upper legs (thighs) (1)

    5. your partner putting his privates into your rear end (1)

    6. you would have preferred one of those two latter modes but you cannot decide which one (1)

    7. you would have liked all four modes equally well (1)

    8. you would have preferred some other mode of sexual contact (1)

    9. had no desire for physical contact with males (0)

  8. What qualities did you like in males to whom you were sexually attracted?

    1. strong masculine behavior (1)

    2. slightly masculine behavior (1)

    3. rather feminine behavior (1)

    4. did not feel sexually attracted to males (0)

  9. Would you have preferred

    1. male homosexual partners (1)

    2. male partners who were not homosexual (1)

    3. had no preference (1)

    4. did not feel sexually attracted to males (0)

  10. Since age 18, how old was the oldest male to whom you could have felt sexually attracted?

    1. younger than 6 (1)

    2. between 6 and 11 (1)

    3. between 12 and 16 (1)

    4. between 17 and 19 (1)

    5. between 20 and 30 (1)

    6. between 31 and 40 (1)

    7. between 41 and 50 (1)

    8. older than 50 (1)

    9. did not feel sexually attracted to males (0)

  11. Would you have preferred a partner

    1. who was willing to have you lead him (1)

    2. who was willing to lead you (1)

    3. you didn’t care (1)

    4. did not feel sexually attracted to males (0)

  12. Since age 16 and up to age 25 (or younger if you are less than 25) how did the preferred age of male partners change as you got older?

    1. became gradually younger (1)

    2. became gradually older (1)

    3. remained about the same (1)

    4. never felt attracted to males (0)

  13. Since age 16, have you even been equally, or more, attracted sexually by a male age 17 and over than by females at 17–40?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

Gynephilia Scale

  1. Since the age of 17 when you went dancing, was this to

    1. mainly meet girls at the dance (1)

    2. mainly meet male friends at the dance (0)

    3. mainly because you liked dancing itself (0)

    4. never went dancing since age 17 (0)

  2. How old were you when you first tried (on your own) to see females 13 or older naked or dressing or undressing (including strip- tease, movies or pictures)?

    1. younger than 12 (1)

    2. between 12 and 16 (1)

    3. older than 16 (1)

    4. never (0)

  3. Since age 13, have you ever fallen in love with or had a crush on a female who was between the ages of 13–40?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  4. Have you ever desired sexual intercourse with a female age 17–40?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  5. How do you prefer females age 17–40 to react when you try to come into sexual contact (not necessarily intercourse) with them?

    1. cooperation on the part of the female (1)

    2. indifference (1)

    3. a little resistance (1)

    4. considerable resistance (1)

    5. you don’t care (0)

    6. do not try to come into sexual contact with females age 17–40 (0)

  6. Do you prefer females of age 17–40

    1. who have no sexual experience (1)

    2. who have had a little experience (1)

    3. who have had considerable experience (1)

    4. you don’t care how much experience (1)

    5. not enough interest in females age 17–40 to know (0)

  7. Between 13 and 16, when you first saw females 13 or over in the nude (or dressing or undressing) including strip-tease, movies or picture, did you feel sexually aroused?

    1. very much (1)

    2. mildly (1)

    3. not at all (0)

    4. never saw females 13 or over in the nude, dressing or undressing (including striptease, movies or pictures) (0)

  8. When you have a wet dream (reach climax while dreaming), do you always, or almost always, dream of a female age 17–40?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

    3. don’t remember any wet dreams (0)

  9. In your sexual fantasies, are females age 17–40 always, or almost always involved?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

    3. haven’t had such fantasies (0)

Heterosexual Experience Scale

  1. Since age 13, how old were you when you first kissed a female age 13–40 who seemed to be interested in you sexually?

    1. between the ages 13–16 (1)

    2. between the ages 17–25 (1)

    3. 26 or older (1)

    4. never after age 12 (0)

  2. Since age 13, how old were you when you first petted (beyond kissing) with a female age 13–40 who seemed to be interested in you sexually?

    1. between the ages 13–16 (1)

    2. between the ages 17–25 (1)

    3. 26 or older (1)

    4. never after age 12 (0)

  3. Have you ever attempted sexual intercourse with a female age 17–40?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no, and you are older than 25 (0)

    3. no, and you are 25 or younger (0)

  4. When did you first have sexual intercourse with a female age 17–40?

    1. before age 16 (1)

    2. between 16 and 25 (1)

    3. 26 or older (1)

    4. never, and you are older than 25 (0)

    5. never, and you are 25 or younger (0)

  5. When did you first get married or begin living common-law?

    1. before 30 (1)

    2. between 30–40 (1)

    3. age 41 or older (1)

    4. never married or had common-law relations, and you are older than 30 (0)

    5. never, and you are 30 or younger (0)

  6. Was there any period of 14 days or less when you had sexual intercourse with a female age 17–40 more than 5 times?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no, and you are older than 25 (0)

    3. no, and you are 25 or younger (0)

Fetishism Scale

  1. Do you think that certain inanimate objects (velvet, silk, leather, rubber, shoes, female underwear, etc.) have a stronger sexual attraction for you than for most other people?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  2. Has the sexual attractiveness of an inanimate (not alive) thing ever increased if it had been worn by, or had been otherwise in con- tact with

    1. a female (1)

    2. a male (1)

    3. preferably a female but also when in contact or having been in contact with a male (1)

    4. preferably a male but also when in contact or having been in contact with a female (1)

    5. a female or male person equally (1)

    6. contact between a person and a thing never increased its sexual attractiveness (1)

    7. do not feel sexually attracted to any inanimate thing (0)

  3. Did the sexual attractiveness to you of such a thing ever increase if you wore it or were otherwise in contact with it yourself?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

    3. have never been sexually attracted to inanimate things (0)

  4. Were you ever more strongly sexually attracted by inanimate things than by females or males?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  5. What was the age of persons who most increased the sexual attractiveness for you of a certain inanimate object by their contact with it?

    1. 3 years or younger (1)

    2. between 4 and 6 years (1)

    3. between 6 and 11 years (1)

    4. between 12 and 13 years (1)

    5. between 14 and 16 years (1)

    6. between 17 and 40 years (1)

    7. over 60 years (1)

    8. contact between a person and a thing never increased its sexual attractiveness (1)

    9. have never been sexually attracted to inanimate things (0)

  6. Is there more than one kind of inanimate thing which arouses you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (1)

    3. have never been sexually attracted to inanimate things (0)

  7. Through which of these senses did the thing act most strongly?

    1. through the sense of smell (1)

    2. through the sense of taste (1)

    3. through the sense of sight (1)

    4. through the sense of touch (1)

    5. through the sense of hearing (1)

    6. have never been sexually attracted to inanimate objects (0)

  8. At about what age do you remember first having a special interest in an inanimate thing which later aroused you sexually?

    1. younger than 2 (1)

    2. between 2 and 4 (1)

    3. between 5 and 7 (1)

    4. between 8 and 10 (1)

    5. between 11 and 13 (1)

    6. older than 13 (1)

    7. have never been sexually attracted to inanimate objects (0)

Masochism Scale

  1. If you were insulted or humiliated by a person to whom you felt sexually attracted, did this ever increase their attractiveness?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

    3. unsure (0)

  2. Has imagining that you were being humiliated or poorly treated by someone ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  3. Has imagining that you had been injured by someone to the point of bleeding ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  4. Has imagining that someone was causing you pain ever aroused you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  5. Has imagining that someone was choking you ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  6. Has imagining that you have become dirty or soiled ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  7. Has imagining that your life was being threatened ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  8. Has imagining that someone was imposing on you heavy physical labor or strain ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  9. Has imagining a situation in which you were having trouble breathing ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  10. Has imagining that you were being threatened with a knife or other sharp instrument ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  11. Has imagining that you are being tied up by somebody ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

Sadism Scale

  1. Did you ever like to read stories about or descriptions of torture?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  2. Did you usually re-read a description of torture several times?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

    3. don’t remember (0)

  3. Were you

    1. very interested in descriptions of torture (1)

    2. a little interested (0)

    3. not at all interested (0)

    4. never read such descriptions (0)

  4. Between the ages of 13 and 16, did you find the sight of blood

    1. exciting (1)

    2. only pleasant (1)

    3. unpleasant (0)

    4. did not affect you in any way (0)

  5. Has beating somebody or imagining that you are doing so ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  6. Have you ever tried to tie the hands or legs of a person who attracted you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  7. Has cutting or imagining to cut someone’s hair ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  8. Has imagining that you saw someone bleeding ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  9. Has imagining someone being choked by yourself or somebody else ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  10. Has imagining yourself or someone else imposing heavy physical labor or strain on somebody ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  11. Has imagining that someone was being ill-treated in some way by yourself or somebody else ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  12. Has imagining that you or someone else were causing pain to somebody ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  13. Has imagining that you or somebody else were threatening someone’s life ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  14. Has imagining that someone other than yourself was crying painfully ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  15. Has imagining that someone other than yourself was dying ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  16. Has imagining that you or someone else were making it difficult for somebody to breathe ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  17. Has imagining that you or someone else were tying up somebody ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  18. Has imagining that you or somebody else were threatening someone with a knife or other sharp instrument ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  19. Has imagining that someone was unconscious or unable to move ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

  20. Has imagining that someone had a very pale and still face ever excited you sexually?

    1. yes (1)

    2. no (0)

References

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Blanchard, R. (1985b). Typology of male-to-female transsexualism. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 247–261.

Blanchard R., Clemmensen, L. H., & Steiner, B. W. 1985). Social desirability response set and systematic distortion in the self-report of adult male gender patients. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 505–516.

Blanchard, R., & Freund, K. (1983). Measuring masculine gender identity in females. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 205–214.

Blanchard, R., McConkey, J. G., Roper, V., & Steiner, B. W. (1983). Measuring physical aggressiveness in heterosexual, homosexual, and transsexual males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, 511–524.

Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1964). The approval motive: Studies in evaluative dependence. New York: Wiley.

Freund, K., & Blanchard, R. (1983). Is the distant relationship of fathers and homosexual sons related to the sons’ erotic preference for male partners, or to the sons’ atypical gender identity, or to both? Journal of Homosexuality, 9, 7–25.

Freund, K., Langevin, R., Satterberg, J., & Steiner, B. W. (1977). Extension of the Gender Identity Scale for Males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 507–519.

Freund, K., Nagler, E., Langevin, R., Zajac, A., & Steiner, B. W. (1974). Measuring feminine gender identity in homosexual males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 3, 249–260.

Freund, K., Steiner, B. W., & Chan, S. (1982). Two types of cross-gender identity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11, 49–63.

Freund, K., Scher, H., Chan, S., & Ben-Aron, M. (1982). Experimental analysis of pedophilia. Behavior Research & Therapy, 20, 105–112.

Guloien, E. H. (1983). Childhood gender identity and adult erotic orientation in males. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario.

Hooberman, R. E. (1979). Psychological androgyny, feminine gender identity, and self-esteem in homosexual and heterosexual males. The Journal of Sex Research, 15, 306–315.

Jackson, D. (1974). Personality research form manual. Goshen, NY: Research Psychologist’s Press.