Back Pain Classification Scale (BPCS)

·         Squeezing
·         splitting
·         continuous
·         aching
·         torturing
·         transient
·         gruelling
·         pricking
·         pulling
·         periodic
·         troublesome
·         tender
·         nagging
·         throbbing
·         intermittent
·         quivering
·         numb
·         suffocating
·         radiating
·         nauseating
·         taut
·         heavy
·         drilling
·         frightful
·         boring
·         jumping
·         crushing
·         miserable
·         dreadful
·         pinching
·         cutting
·         drawing
·         flashing
·         cruel
·         rasping
·         killing
·         penetrating
·         blinding
·         fearful
·         annoying
·         spreading
·         beating
·         exhausting
·         tearing
·         cramping
·         wrenching
·         rhythmic
·         lacerating
·         pounding
·         shooting
·         wretched
·         momentary
·         hurting
·         intense
·         dull
·         hot
·         pins and needles
·         pulsing
·         punishing
·         superficial
·         stinging
·         burning
·         deep
·         brief
·         sharp
·         localized
·         cold
·         tiring
·         unlocalized
·         flickering
·         scalding
·         spasms
·         unbearable
·         gnawing
·         diffuse
·         tugging
·         stabbing
·         surface
·         agonizing
·         tingling
·         stiff
·         piercing
·         freezing
·         skin pain
·         smarting
·         tight
·         muscle pain
·         steady
·         itchy
·         bone pain
·         constant
·         pressing
·         joint pain
·         lancinating
·         sore
·         moving pain
·         terrifying
·         sickening
·         electrical
·         vicious
·         searing
·         shock-like
·         cool
 
 

Leavitt‚ F.‚ Garron‚ D.C.‚ Whisler‚ W.W‚ et al. (1978). Affective and sensory dimensions of back pain. Pain‚ 4:273–281.

Leavitt‚ F.‚ Garron‚ D.C.(1979). The detection of psychological disturbance in patients with low back pain. J Psychosom Res‚ 23:149–154.

Leavitt‚ F.‚ Garron‚ D.C.(1979). Psychological disturbance and pain report differences in both organic and non-organic low back pain patients. Pain‚ 7:187–195.

Leavitt‚ F.‚ Garron‚ D.C. (1979). Validity of a Back Pain Classification Scale among patients with low back pain not associated with demonstrable organic disease. J Psychosom Res‚ 23:301–306.

Leavitt‚ F.‚ Garron‚ D.C.(1980). Validity of a Back Pain Classification Scale for detecting psychological disturbance as measured by the MMPI. Journal of Clinical Psychology‚ 36:186–189.

Leavitt‚ F.‚ Garron‚ D.C.‚ McNeill‚T.w‚ et al. (1980). Organic Status‚ Psychological Disturbance‚ and Pain Report ch‎aracteristics in Low-Back-Pain Patients on Compensation. Spine‚ 7(4): 398-401.

Leavitt‚ F. (1982). Comparison of three measures for detecting psychological disturbance in patients with low back pain. Pain‚ 13:299–305.

Leavitt‚ F. (1985). Pain and deception: use of verbal pain measurement as a diagnostic aid in differentiating between clinical and simulated low-back pain. J Psychosom Res‚ 29:495–505.

Biedermann HJ‚ Monga‚ T.N.‚ Shanks‚ G.L‚ et al. (1986). The classification of back pain patients: functional versus organic. J Psychosom Res‚ 30:273–276.

Leavitt‚ F. (1987). Use of verbal pain measurement in the detection of hidden psychological morbidity among low back pain patients with objective organic findings. Psychol Health‚1:315–326.

Leavitt‚ F.‚ Gilbert‚ N.S.‚ Mooney‚ V. (1994). Development of the Hispanic Low Back Pain Symptom Check List. Spine‚ 19:1048–1052.

McDowell‚ Ian. (2006). Measuring Health: A Guide to Rating Scales and Questionnaires‚ Third Edition. OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

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