Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES)

Background:

Adherence to HIV treatment, including adherence to antiretroviral (ART) medication regimens, is paramount in the management of HIV. Self-efficacy for treatment adherence has been identified as an important correlate of medication adherence in the treatment of HIV and other medical conditions. The Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES), which was designed to measure self-efficacy for adherence to HIV treatment plans, including but not limited to taking HIV medications. For the purposes of this scale, treatment plans can include anything the individual does to take care of hi/her HIV disease, including taking antiretroviral therapy, nutrition, exercise, etc. The original instrument was developed for use in clinical trials of behavioral interventions related to stress and coping and treatment adherence.

Psychometrics:

Factor analyses support subscales measuring Adherence Integration (eigenvalue = 6.12) and Adherence Perseverance (eigenvalue = 1.16), accounting for 61% of the variance in scale items. The HIV-ASES demonstrates robust internal consistency (ρs > .90) and 3-month (rs > .70) and 15-month (rs > .40) test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity analyses revealed relationships with psychosocial measures, ART adherence, clinical status, and healthcare utilization. 

Author of Tool:

Centre for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS)

Key references:

Johnson MO, Neilands TB, Dilworth SE, Morin SF, Remien RH, Chesney MA. The Role of Self-Efficacy in HIV Treatment Adherence: Validation of the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (HIV-ASES). J Behav Med. 2007 Jun 23.. J Behav Med. 2007 Jun 23. 

Primary use / Purpose:

This 12-item scale assessed patient confidence to carry out important treatment-related behaviors related to adhering to treatment plans, including medication regimen adherence and following plans for nutrition, exercise, etc, in the face of barriers.

The HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (HIVASES)

SOURCE ARTICLE:

Johnson, M. O., Neilands, T. B., Dilworth, S. E., Morin, S. F., Remien, H., & Chesney, M. A. (2007). The role of self-efficacy in HIV treatment adherence: Validation of the HIV treatment adherence self-efficacy scale (HIV-ASES). Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30(5), 359-370.

RESPONSE OPTIONS: Reponses range from 1 (cannot do it at all) to 10 (certain can do it).

SURVEY ITEMS:

In the past month, how confident have you been that you can:

  1. Stick to your treatment plan even when side effects begin to interfere with daily activities?
  2. Integrate your treatment into your daily routine?
  3. Integrate your treatment into your daily routine even if it means taking medication or doing other things in front of people who don’t know you are HIV-infected?
  4. Stick to your treatment schedule even when your daily routine is disrupted?
  5. Stick to your treatment schedule when you aren’t feeling well?
  6. Stick to your treatment schedule when it means changing your eating habits?
  7. Continue with your treatment even if doing so interferes with your daily activities?
  8. Continue with the treatment plan your physician prescribed even if your T-cells drop significantly in the next three months?
  9. Continue with your treatment even when you are feeling discouraged about your health?
  10. Continue with your treatment even when getting to your clinic appointments is a major hassle?
  11. Continue with your treatment even when people close to you tell you that they don’t think that it is doing any good?
  12. Get something positive out of your participation in treatment, even if the medication you are taking does not improve your health?

TERMS OF USE:

Individuals may use this information for research or educational purposes only and may not use this information for commercial purposes.  When using this instrument, please cite:

Johnson, M. O., Neilands, T. B., Dilworth, S. E., Morin, S. F., Remien, R. H., & Chesney, M. A. (2007). The role of self-efficacy in HIV treatment adherence: Validation of the HIV treatment adherence self-efficacy scale (HIV- ASES). Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30(5), 359-370.

When presenting results using any survey information you obtained from the SABI, please acknowledge the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Center for AIDS Research (CFAR), an NIH funded program P30 AI50410.