Acculturation Scale for Mexican Americans (ASMA)

Acculturation Scale for Mexican Americans (ASMA)
Deyo‚ Diehl‚ Hazuda‚ & Stern‚ 1985
1.    Some of our patients speak both English and Spanish‚ but many speak only one or the other. To improve our future contacts with you‚ we would like to know what language you prefer to speak.
1 = English‚ 2 = Spanish 3 = Both equally
2.    What language is most often spoken in your home?
1= English‚ 2 = Spanish‚ 3 = Both equally
3.    What was your first language as a child?
1= English‚ 2 = Spanish‚ 3 = Other
4.    Many of our patients have difficulty reading in either English or Spanish. Do you read any English?
1 = Yes‚ anything 2 = Some 3 = Very little 4 = None
Question 1-3:  1 point for English and Question 4: 1 point for 1‚ 2‚ or 3
This instrument can be found at:

Deyo‚ R. A.‚ Diehl‚ A. K.‚ Hazuda‚ H.‚ & Stern‚ M. P. (1985). A simple language-based scale for Mexican Americans: Validation and application to healthcare research. American Journal of Public Health‚ 75‚ 51–55.

Gilliam‚ M. L.‚ Berlin‚ A.‚ Kozloski‚ M.‚ Hernandez‚ M.‚ & Grundy‚ M. (2007). Interpersonal and personal factors influencing sexual debut among Mexican- American young women in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health‚ 41‚ 493–503.

Ruiz‚ R. J.‚ Dolbier‚ C. L.‚ & Fleschler‚ R. (2006). The relationships among acculturation‚ bio-behavioral risk‚ stress‚ corticotrophin-releasing hormone‚ and poor birth outcomes in Hispanic women. Ethnicity and Disease‚ 16‚ 926–931.

Davis LE and Engel RJ. Measuring Race and Ethnicity. New York‚ NY: Springer 2011.