Wallace Self-Concept Scale

Wallace, G. R. (1980). WSCS technical manual. St. Louis: University of Missouri, St. Louis, Dept. of Behavioral Studies.


The Wallace Self-Concept Scale (WSCS) is a 15-item bipolar adjective scale that measures an individual’s perception of “Myself as a Person.” It is a global measure of the self. There are two forms (A and B) in English and one form (A) in Spanish.

Scale Development:

Based upon a review of the literature, an initial item pool consisting of 75 bipolar adjectives was developed. A panel of three judges rated the adjectives using a three-point scale. Thirty-four items were retained and administered to the original sample. The 15 items that were included in the final version of the WSCS met the follow- ing criteria: the item scores correlated equal to or greater than 0.40 with the total WSCS and the item scores correlated equal to or less than 0.23 with the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Form B was constructed by making the top half of Form A the bottom of Form B and vice versa. All the bipolar items were also reversed. Forms A and B are considered alternate forms.


The original sample consisted of 100 people (teachers, college students, and businessmen). Descriptive statis- tics are provided for four groups: adults (1,257), adolescents (771), college students (287), and a total sample (2,301). Normative data (raw scores, frequencies, cumulative frequencies, NCEs, standardized T scores, and the normalized Z scores) are included for each of the four groups.


Two types of validity are reported for Form A. Convergent validity is reported between the WSCS and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (0.45), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (0.60), the Personal Orientation Inventory (0.51), and the Piers-Harris Self-Esteem Concept Scale (0.64). Discriminant validity with the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale is 0.23.


Three types of reliability estimates are reported for Form A. Coefficient alpha for Form A was 0.81. Test- retest reliabilities ranged from 0.72 to 0.81 over a two-week period. Alternate form reliabilities between Form A and B ranged from 0.71 to 0.80 over a three-week period.


Wallace, G. R., and Walker, S. P. (1990). Self-concept, vocational interests, and choice of academic major in college students. College Student Journal 23:361–67.

Wallace, G. R., et al. (1984). Factorial comparison of the Wallace Self-Concept Scale between special education teachers and regular classroom teachers. Educational and Psychological Measurement 44:199–207.

Zheng, J. X. (2006). The research of disadvantaged students implicit and explicit self-concept and their predicted fountain. M.S. East China Normal University (People’s Republic of China).

Wallace Self-Concept Scale (Form A)

  1. Eager                                Indifferent
  2. Passive                               Active
  3. Rigid                                  Flexible
  4. Participating                    Avoiding
  5. Lethargic                           Energetic
  6. Powerful                           Powerless
  7. Negative                            Positive
  8. Hardworking                   Lazy
  9. Repulsive                         Attractive
  10. Sharp                                Dull
  11. Unpleasant                      Pleasant
  12. Useless                              Useful
  13. Happy                               Sad
  14. Pessimistic                       Optimistic
  15. Ugly                                   Beautiful


Each bipolar adjective item is scored on a scale from 1 to 7. The six reverse scored adjectives are: eager, participating, powerful, hardworking, sharp, and happy.