Unlabeled Fascist Attitudes

Unlabeled Fascist Attitudes
Edwards‚ 1941
1.    Children should be taught to be more obedient and to have more respect for authority by the public schools.
2.    Whatever best serves the interests of government is generally right.
3.    The public schools should place more emphasis upon physical training and loyalty and less upon the development of intellectual functions. *
4.    Everyone should have the full liberty of propagandizing for what he believes to be true.*
5.    The masses of people are capable of determining what is and what is not good for them.
6.    America has reached a higher state of civilization than any other country in the world and as a consequence has a culture which is superior to any other.
7.    People should be given the opportunity to hear all sides of a question‚ regardless of how controversial it is.*
8.    Over 10% of the population is incapable of democratic participation in government by reason of their lack of inherited abilities.
9.    Generally speaking‚ women are less intelligent and efficient than men.
10.The superior people in any culture are justified in dominating national affairs by force if necessary‚ because of the very fact that they are superior.
11.Many people who claim they believe in democracy have unconscious prejudices and attitudes which would make them sympathetic to a fascist movement.*
12.Because many of the minor political parties merely confuse national issues‚ all political parties except the two major ones should be abolished.
13.The right to vote should be restricted to those individuals who have a specified amount of private property and therefore have a direct concern in the welfare of the country.
14.A large percent of the taxes which citizens pay is wasted in an effort to educate individuals who are not capable or worthy of being educated.
15.The right of the working classes to c all a general strike should be abolished because it is a potential threat to democracy and is not in the general interest of society.
16.Patriotism and loyalty to one's country are more important than one's intellectual convictions and should have precedence over them.
17.A standing array of 2‚000‚000 men or over is necessary for our national defense at all times.
18.Government should attempt to persuade people to have more children and if necessary restrict birth control information for the benefit of our national defense.
19.In the national interest‚ private schools should either be abolished or restricted in their teachings so that the control of education is largely in the hands of the federal government.
20.Regardless of who our next president is‚ he must be a strong intelligent man and be given full power to run things i n the interest of the people.
21.Certain religious sects whose beliefs do not permit them to salute the flag; should either be forced to conform or else be abolished.
22.There will always be superior and inferior races in the world and in the interests of all concerned it is best that the superior continue to dominate the inferior.
23.Our foreign markets are a vital necessity to our prosperity and must be protected at all costs.
24.Women have more ability and are more efficient at tasks around the home and as a result their rightful place is in the home and not in the business world.
25.Minor forms of military training such as drill‚ marching‚ and simple commands should be made a part of the elementary school educational program.
26.Academic freedom is all right in principle‚ but instructors in high schools and colleges should not be allowed to express their convictions concerning their subject matter.
* These items were not included in the revised scale
I strongly agree with this statement
I agree with this statement
I am uncertain about this statement
I disagree with this statement
I strongly disagree with this statement

Edwards‚ A.‚ (1941). Unlabeled fascist attitudes. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology‚ 36‚ 579-582.

Edwards‚ A. L. (1944). The signs of incipient fascism. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology‚ 39(3)‚ 301-316.

Robinson‚ John P.‚ Shaver‚ Phillip R. (1969). Measures of Political Attitudes. Institute for Social Research‚ University of Michigan/. Ann Arbor‚ Michigan