# THE DEFEAT SCALE (D SCALE)

Gilbert‚ P. & Allen‚ S
Below is a series of statements‚ which describe how people can feel about themselves. Read each item carefully and circle the number to the right of the statement that best describes how you have felt in the last 7 days. Use the scale below. Please do not omit any item.

SCALE
0 = NEVER    1 = RARELY    2 = SOMETIMES    3 = MOSTLY (a lot)   4 = ALWAYS

 1 I feel that I have not made it in life 0 1 2 3 4 2 I feel that I am a successful person 0 1 2 3 4 3 I feel defeated by life 0 1 2 3 4 4 I feel that I am basically a winner 0 1 2 3 4 5 I feel that I have lost my standing in the world 0 1 2 3 4 6 I feel that life has treated me like a punch bag 0 1 2 3 4 7 I feel powerless 0 1 2 3 4 8 I feel that my confidence has been knocked out of me 0 1 2 3 4 9 I feel able to deal with whatever life throws at me 0 1 2 3 4 10 I feel that I have sunk to the bottom of the ladder 0 1 2 3 4 11 I feel completely knocked out of action 0 1 2 3 4 12 I feel that I am one of life’s losers 0 1 2 3 4 13 I feel that I have given up 0 1 2 3 4 14 I feel down and out 0 1 2 3 4 15 I feel that I have lost important battles in life 0 1 2 3 4 16 I feel that there is no fight left in me 0 1 2 3 4

DESCRIPTION

Gilbert and Allan (1998) also designed the items on this scale in order to depict a sense of failed struggle and losing rank. This measure requests participants to respond to 16 items on a 5 –point Likert scale (ranging from 0 = Never to 4 = always) asking them how much they had felt defeated in the previous seven days‚ for example item 1 I feel that I have not made it in life. This scale has very high internal consistency with Alpha coefficients of 0.94 for females and 0.93 for males in both groups‚ furthermore reliability of 0.94 for students and 0.93 for depressed group.

SCORING

2‚ 4 & 9 are reversed scored items
REFERENCE

Gilbert‚ P. & Allen‚ S. (1998). The role of defeat and entrapment (arrested flight) in depression: An exploration of an evolutionary view. Psychological Medicine‚ 28‚ 585-598.

OTHER REFERENCES

Gilbert‚ P.‚ Allan‚ S.‚ Brough‚ S.‚ Melley‚ S. & Miles‚ J. (2002). Anhedonia and positive affect: relationship to social rank‚ defeat and entrapment. Journal of Affective Disorders‚ 71‚ 141-151.

THEORY PAPER

Gilbert‚ P. (2001a). Evolutionary approaches to psychopathology: The role of natural defences. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry‚ 35‚ 17-27.

Gilbert‚ P. (2001b). Depression and stress: A biopsychosocial exploration of evolved functions and mechanisms Stress: The International Journal of the Biology of Stress‚ 4‚ 121-135.

Gilbert. P. (2007). Psychotherapy and Counselling for depression. London: Sage.

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