Social Support Measure
Berkman and Breslow‚1983
1. How many close friends do you have‚ people that you feel at ease with‚ can talk to about private matters?
2. How many of these close friends do you see at least once a month?
3. How many relatives do you have‚ people that you feel at ease with‚ can talk to about private matters?
4. How many of these relatives do you see at least once a month?
5. Do you participate in any groups‚ such as a senior center‚ social or work group‚ religious-connected group‚ self-help group‚ or charity‚ public service‚ or community group? 0 = No‚ 1 = Yes‚ 9 = Unknown
6. About how often do you go to religious meetings or services? 0 = Never or almost never‚ 1 = Once or twice a year‚ 2 = Every few months‚ 3 = Once or twice a month‚ 4 = Once a week‚ 5 = More than once a week‚ 9 = Unknown
7. Is there someone available to you whom you can count on to listen to you when you need to talk?
8. Is there someone available to give you good advice about a problem?
9. Is there someone available to you who shows you love and affection?
10.Can you count on anyone to provide you with emotional support (talking over problems or helping you make a difficult decision)?
11.Do you have as much contact as you would like with someone you feel close to‚ someone in
Loucks et al. (2006) scored as follows: Married (no = 0; yes = 1); close friends and relatives (0–2 friends and 0–2 relatives = 0; all other scores = 1); group participation (no = 0; yes = 1); participation in religious meetings or services (less than or equal to every few months = 0; greater than or equal to once or twice a month = 1). The latter two categories were mutually exclusive from each other. Scores were summed: 0 or 1 being the most isolated category; and 2‚ 3‚ or 4 formed the other three categories of increasing social connectedness.
0 = None‚ 1 = 1 or 2‚ 2 = 3 to 5‚ 3 = 6 to 9‚ 4 = 10 or more‚ 9 = Unknown
Berkman‚ L. F.‚ & Syme‚ S. L. (1979). Social networks‚ host resistance‚ and mortality: A nine-year follow-up of Alameda county residents. American Journal of Epidemiology‚ 109‚ 186–204.
Berkman‚ L.‚ F.‚ & Breslow‚ L. (1983). Health and ways of living. New York: Oxford University Press.
Berkman‚ L. F.‚ Blumenthal‚ J.‚ Burg‚ M.‚ Carney‚ R. M.‚ Catellier‚ D.‚ Cowan‚ M. J.‚ Czajkowski‚ S. M.‚ DeBusk‚ R.‚ Hosking‚ J.‚ Jaffe‚ A.‚ Kaufmann‚ P. G.‚ Mitchell‚ P.‚ Norman‚ J.‚ Powell‚ L. H.‚ Raczynski‚ J. M.‚ & Schneiderman‚ N.; (2003). Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease Patients Investigators (ENRICHD). Effects of treating depression and low-perceived social support on clinical events after myocardial infarction: The Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease Patients (ENRICHD) randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association‚ 289(23)‚ 2106–3116.
Loucks‚ E.‚ Sullivan‚ L.‚ D’Agostino‚ R.‚ Larson‚ M.‚ Berkman‚ L.‚ & Benjamin‚ E. (2006). Social networks and inflammatory markers in the Framingham Heart Study. Journal of Biosocial Science‚ 38(6)‚ 835–842.