1. Low self-concept (feeling of inadequacy‚ not measuring up to self-ideal)
2. Goallessness (lack of inner motivation and sense of future orientation)
3. Lack of a satisfying philosophy or meaning of life (a conceptual framework for integrating past and present experiences)
4. Self-health concern (preoccupation with physical health‚ somatic concerns)
5. Emotional withdrawal (degree of deficiency in relating to others)
6. Hostility (degree of aggression toward others)
7. Manipulation (exploiting of environment‚ controlling at other’s expense)
8. Over-dependency (degree of parasitic attachment to others)
9. Anxiety (degree of feeling of uneasiness‚ impending doom)
10.Suspiciousness (degree of distrust or paranoid ideation)
11.Lack of satisfying relationships with significant persons (spouse‚ children‚ kin‚ significant persons serving in a family role)
12.Lack of friends‚ social contacts
13.Expressed need for more friends‚ social contacts
14.Lack of work (remunerative or non-remunerative‚ productive work activities which normally give a sense of usefulness‚ status‚ confidence)
15.Lack of satisfaction from work
16.Lack of leisure time activities
17.Expressed need for more leisure‚ self-enhancing and satisfying activities
18.Lack of participation in community activities
19.Lack of interest in community affairs and activities which influence others
21.Adaptive rigidity (lack of complex coping patterns to stress)
(1) Not Present‚ (2) Very Mild‚ (3) Mild‚ (4) Moderate‚ (5) Severe‚ (6) Very severe
Linn‚ M.W.‚ Sculthorpe‚ W.B.‚ Evje‚ M.‚ Slater‚ P.H.‚ Goodman‚ S.P. (1969). A social dysfunction rating scale. Journal of psychiatric research‚ 6:299–306.
Linn‚ M.W.(1976). Studies in rating the physical‚ mental‚ and social dysfunction of the chronically ill aged. Med Care‚ 14(suppl 5):119–125.
Linn‚ M.W.‚ Caffey‚ E.M‚ Jr.‚ (1977). Foster placement for the older psychiatric patient. J Gerontol‚ 32:340–345.
Linn‚ M.W.‚ Caffey‚ E.M‚ Jr.‚ Klett‚ C.J.‚ et al. (1977). Hospital vs community (foster) care for psychiatric patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry‚ 34:78–83.
Linn‚ M.W.(1979). Assessing community adjustment in the elderly. In: Raskin A‚ Jervik LF‚ eds. Assessment of psychiatric symptoms and cognitive loss in the elderly. Washington‚ DC: Hemisphere Press‚ 1979:187–204.
Linn‚ M.W.‚ Caffey‚ E.M.‚ Klett‚ C.J.‚ et al. (1979). Day treatment and psychotropic drugs in the aftercare of schizophrenic patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry‚ 36:1055–1066.
Linn‚ M.W.‚ Klett‚ C.J.‚ Caffey‚ E.M‚ Jr. (1980). Foster home characteristics and psychiatric patient outcome: the wisdom of Gheel confirmed. Arch Gen Psychiatry‚ 37:129–132.
Linn‚ M.W.(1988). A critical review of scales used to evaluate social and interpersonal adjustment in the community. Psychopharmacol Bull‚ 24:615–621.
Linn‚ M.W.(1988). Social Dysfunction Rating Scale (SDRS). Psychopharmacology Bulletin‚ 24(4):801-2
McDowell‚ Ian. (2006). Measuring Health: A Guide to Rating Scales and Questionnaires‚ Third Edition. OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS