1. At a bar or cocktail lounge having a drink.
2. When I am desiring a cigarette.
3. When things are not going the way I want and I am frustrated.
4. With my spouse or close friend who is smoking.
5. When there are arguments and conflicts with my family.
6. When I am happy and celebrating.
7. When I am very angry about something or someone.
8. When I would experience an emotional crisis‚ such as an accident or a death in the family.
9. When I see someone smoking and enjoying it.
10.Over coffee while talking and relaxing.
11.When I realize that quitting smoking is an extremely difficult task for me.
12.When I am craving a cigarette.
13.When I first get up in the morning.
14.When I feel I need a lift.
15.When I begin to let down on my concern about my health and am less physically active.
16.With friends at a party.
17.When I wake up in the morning and face a tough day.
18.When I am extremely depressed.
19.When I am extremely anxious and stressed.
20.When I realize I haven’t smoked for a while.
9 items – Short Form
1. With friends at a party.
2. When I first get up in the morning.
3. When I am very anxious and stressed.
4. Over coffee while talking and relaxing.
5. When I feel I need a lift.
6. When I am very angry about something or someone.
7. With my spouse or close friend who is smoking.
8. When I realize I haven’t smoked for a while.
9. When things are not going my way and I am frustrated.
The Transtheoretical Model (TTM; Prochaska & DiClemente‚ 1983; Prochaska‚ DiClemente‚ & Norcross‚ 1992)
Negative Affect (.95)‚ Social/Positive (.93)‚ Habit/Addictive (.92) “Velicer‚ et. al (1990)”
1=Not at all confident‚ 2=Not very confident‚ 3=Moderately confident‚ 4=Very confident‚ 5=Extremely confident
20 Item Version
· Negative Affect 3‚ 5‚ 7‚ 8‚ 18‚ 19
· Social/Positive 1‚ 4‚ 6‚ 9‚ 10‚ 16
· Habitual/ Craving 11‚ 13‚ 14‚ 15‚ 20
9 Item Version
· Negative Affect 3‚ 6‚ 9
· Social/Positive 1‚ 4‚ 7
· Habitual/Craving 2‚ 5‚ 8
This instrument can be found at: http://habitslab.umbc.edu/self-efficacy-scales/
DiClemente‚ C.C.‚ Prochaska‚ J.O.‚ and Gibertini‚ M. (1985). Self-Efficacy and the Stages of Self-Change of Smoking. Cognitive Therapy and Research‚ 9‚ 2‚ 181-200.
DiClemente‚ C. C. (1986). Self-Efficacy and the addictive behaviors. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology‚ 4‚ 302-315.
Prochaska‚ J.O.‚ Velicer‚ W.F.‚ DiClemente‚ C.C.‚ & Fava‚ J. (1988). Measuring Processes of Change: Applications to the Cessation of Smoking. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology‚ 56‚ 4‚ 520-528.
Velicer‚ W.F.‚ DiClemente‚ C.C.‚ Rossi‚ J. S.‚ Prochaska‚ J. O. (1990). Relapse situations and self-efficacy: An integrative model. Addictive Behaviors‚ 15‚ 271-283.
DiClemente‚ C. C.‚ Fairhurst‚ S. K.‚ & Piotrowski‚ N. A. (1995). Self-Efficacy and addictive behaviors. In J. E. Maddux‚ ed.‚ Self-Efficacy‚ adaptation‚ and adjustment: Theory‚ research‚ and application (pp. 109-141). New York: Plenum.
Perz‚ C.A.‚ DiClemente‚ C.C.‚ & Carbonari‚ J.P. (1996). Doing the right Thing at the Right Time? The Interaction of Stages and Processes of Change in Successful Smoking Cessation. Health Psychology‚ 15‚ 6‚ 462-468.
DiClemente‚ CC & Haug‚ N. (October‚ 2001) Smoking Cessation: Helping Patients through the Process. Journal of COPD Management. 2(4)‚ 4-9.
Delahanty‚ J.C.‚ DiClemente‚ C.C.‚ Havas‚ S.‚ & Langenberg‚ P. (2008). Smoking status and stages of change for dietary behaviors among WIC women. American Journal of Health Behavior‚ 32(6)‚ 583-593.