1. I behave in ways that make other people afraid of me.
2. I use my size and strength to influence people when I need to.
3. If I harm someone‚ I apologise and promise not to do it again.
4. I offer explanations before doing something that others might think is wrong
5. I justify my behavior to reduce negative reactions from others.
6. I tell people when I do well at tasks others find difficult.
7. I use my weaknesses to get sympathy from others.
8. I ask others to help me.
9. I express the same attitudes as others so they will accept me.
10.When I believe I will not perform well‚ I offer excuses beforehand.
11.I use flattery to win the favor of others.
12.I get sick when under a lot of pressure to do well.
13.I apologise when I have done something wrong.
14.I lead others to believe that I cannot do something in order to get help.
15.I try to serve as a model for how a person should behave.
17.I try to get the approval of others before doing something they might perceive negatively.
18.I try to make up for any harm I have done to others.
19.In telling others about things that I own‚ I also tell them of their value.
20.I point out the incorrect positions of the opposing political party.
21.I try to induce imitation by others by serving as a positive example.
22.When telling someone about past events‚ I claim more credit for doing positive things than was warranted by the actual events.
23.I tell people about my positive accomplishments.
24.I try to set an example for others to follow.
25.I justify beforehand actions others may not like.
26.I try to get others to act in the same positive way I do.
27.I have put others down in order to make myself look better.
28.I do favors for people in order to get them to like me.
29.I accept blame for bad behavior when it is clearly my fault.
30.I exaggerate the value of my accomplishments.
31.I hesitate and hope others will take responsibility for group tasks.
32.I threaten others when I think it will help me get what I want from them.
33.I express opinions that other people will like.
34.I say negative things about unpopular groups.
35.I try to convince others that I am not responsible for negative events.
36.When things go wrong‚ I explain why I am not responsible.
37.I act in ways I think others should act.
38.I tell others about my positive qualities.
39.When I am blamed for something‚ I make excuses.
40.I point out the positive things I do which other people fail to notice.
41.I do correct people who underestimate the value of gifts that I give to them.
42.Poor health has been responsible for my getting mediocre grades in school.
43.I help others so they will help me.
44.I offer socially acceptable reasons to justify behavior that others might not like.
45.When others view my behavior as negative‚ I offer explanations so that they will understand that my behavior was justified.
46.When working on a project with a group I make my contribution seem greater than it is.
47.I exaggerate the negative qualities of people who compete with me.
48.I make up excuses for poor performance.
49.I offer an excuse for possibly not performing well before taking a very difficult test.
50.I express remorse and guilt when I do something wrong.
51.I intimidate others.
52.When I want something‚ I try to look good.
53.I do not prepare well enough for exams because I get too involved in social activities.
54.I tell others they are stronger or more competent than me in order to get others to do things for me.
55.I claim credit for doing things I did not do.
56.I make negative statements about people belonging to rival groups.
57.I put obstacles in the way of my own success.
58.Anxiety interferes with my performances.
59.I do things to make people afraid of me so that they will do what I want.
60.When I succeed at a task‚ I emphasize to others how important the task was.
61.I offer good reasons for my behavior no matter how bad it may seem to others.
62.To avoid being blamed‚ I let others know that I did not intend any harm.
63.I compliment people to get them on my side.
64.After a negative action‚ I try to make others understand that if they had been in my position they would have done the same thing.
Excuse‚ Justification‚ Disclaimer‚ Self-handicapping‚ Apology‚ Ingratiation‚ Intimidation‚ Supplication‚ Entitlement‚ Enhancement‚ Blasting‚ Exemplification
Cronbach’s alpha coefficient 0.86 for the defensive self-presentation tactic and 0.91 for the assertive self-presentation tactic subscale‚ the whole Self-presentation Tactics Scale was found to be 0.93. (Leary et al‚ 2015)
(a) excuse (a = .83)‚ (b) justification (a = .81)‚ (c) disclaimer (a = .73)‚ (d) self-handicapping (a = .56)‚ (e) apology (a = .66)‚ (f) ingratiation (a = .81)‚ (g) intimidation (a = .84)‚ (h) supplication (a = .71)‚ (i) entitlement (a = .79)‚ (j) enhancement (a = .72)‚ (k) blasting (a = .76)‚ and (l) exemplification (a = .82)
1 (very infrequently) to 9 (very frequently)
Excuse (items 35‚ 36‚ 39‚ 48‚62)‚ Justification (items 5‚ 44‚ 45‚ 61‚ 64)‚ Disclaimer (items 4‚ 10‚ 25‚ 17‚ 49)‚ Self-handicapping (items 12‚ 42‚ 53‚ 57‚ 58)‚ Apology (items 3‚ 13‚ 18‚ 29‚ 50)‚ Ingratiation (items 9‚ 11‚ 28‚ 33‚ 38‚ 43‚ 52‚ 63)‚ Intimidation (items 1‚ 2‚ 32‚ 51‚ 59)‚ Supplication (items 7‚ 8‚ 14‚ 31‚ 54)‚ Entitlement (items 22‚ 23‚ 40‚ 45‚ 55)‚ Enhancement (items 6‚ 19‚ 30‚ 41‚ 60)‚ Blasting (20‚ 27‚ 34‚ 47‚ 56)‚ Exemplification (items 15‚ 21‚ 24‚ 26‚ 37) (Lewis‚ 2005)
Lee‚ S.‚ Quigley‚ B.M.‚ Nesler‚ M.S.‚ Corbett‚ A.B.‚ & Tedeschi‚ J.T. (1999). Development of a self-presentation tactics scale. Personality and Individual Differences‚ 26(4): 701-722.
Lewis‚ M.A. (2005). Self-Determination and the Use of Self-Presentation Strategies. Journal of Social Psychology‚ 145(4): 469-489
Leary‚ Mark R.‚ Jongman-Sereno‚ Katrina P.‚ and Diebels‚ Kate J. (2015). Measures of Concerns with Public Image and Social Evaluation. in Gregory Boyle‚ Donald H. Saklofske and Gerald Matthews.‚ Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs. Elsevier‚ Pages 448–473