Procedural Fairness, Employee Voice, and Justification


This measure, (Procedural Fairness, Employee Voice, and Justification) developed by Daly and Geyer (1994), assesses the extent to which employees perceive that the company has used fair procedures and incorporated employee input when making decisions that affect employees. The measure was developed to measure these attributes surrounding an organization’s decision to relocate an employment location. The employee voice subscale assesses the extent to which employees were able or were invited to express their views and concerns to decision makers prior to a final decision being made. The voice measure also includes three items that describe the extent to which management provided adequate justification for the decision.


Coefficient alpha for procedural fairness was .88. Alpha for employee voice and justification was .77 (Daley & Geyer, 1994).


Analysis of structural models showed that distributive fairness, procedural fairness, and voice/justification were empirically distinct. Procedural fair­ ness correlated positively with intention to remain with the organization, distributive fairness, and voice/justification (Daly & Geyer, 1994).


Daly, J.P., & Geyer, P. D. (1994). The role of fairness in implementing large­ scale change: Employee evaluations of process and outcome in seven facil­ ity relocations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(7), 623-638. Items were taken from Table 1, p. 629. Copyright© 1994. Reproduced by permis­ sion of John Wiley & Sons Limited.


Responses are obtained using a 5-point Likert-type scale where 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree.

Procedural fairness items:

  1. The organization went about deciding to move in a way that was not fair to me (R)
  2. The way that management made the relocation decision was not fair to me (R)
  3. The organization was fair to me in the way that it made the decision to relocate
  4. The steps that the company took to make the relocation decision were fair to me

Voice items:

  1. People like myself had input into the decision to relocate
  2. Management did not give me a chance to express my concerns before they made the decision to move (R)
  3. The organization did not listen to my views about relocating before they decided to move (R)
  4. Before management decided to move, they asked me what I thought about the idea

Justification items:

  1. Management did not explain to me why the move was taking place (R)
  2. Management fully explained to me why the company was relocating
  3. Management never really explained why the company was moving (R)

Items denoted with (R) are reverse scored.

This content is licensed under a CC-BY license. The CC-BY licenses grant rights of use the scales in your studies (the measurement instrument and its documentation), but do not replace copyright. This remains with the copyright holder, and you have to cite us as the source.

Mohammed Looti, PSYCHOLOGICAL SCALES (2023) Procedural Fairness, Employee Voice, and Justification. Retrieved from DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31575.96163