1. I give special privileges to students who do the best work.
2. If I try really hard‚ I can get through to even the most difficult student.
3. In this school: The importance of trying hard is really stressed to students.
4. I make a special effort to recognize students’ individual progress‚ even if they are below grade level.
5. In this school: Students are told that making mistakes is OK as long as they are learning and improving.
6. Factors beyond my control have a greater influence on my students’ achievement than I do.
7. In this school: It’s easy to tell which students get the highest grades and which students get the lowest grades.
8. I am good at helping all the students in my classes make significant improvement.
9. I display the work of the highest achieving students as an example.
10.In this school: Students who get good grades are pointed out as an example to others.
11.During class‚ I often provide several different activities so that students can choose among them.
12.In this school: Students hear a lot about the importance of getting high test scores.
13.I consider how much students have improved when I give them report card grades.
14.In this school: A lot of the work students do is boring and repetitious.
15.In this school: Grades and test scores are not talked about a lot.
16.In this school: Students are frequently told that learning should be fun.
17.I help students understand how their performance compares to others.
18.Some students are not going to make a lot of progress this year‚ no matter what I do.
19.I encourage students to compete with each other.
20.In this school: The emphasis is on really understanding schoolwork‚ not just memorizing it.
21.I point out those students who do well as a model for the other students.
22.In this school: A real effort is made to recognize students for effort and improvement.
23.I am certain that I am making a difference in the lives of my students.
24.There is little I can do to ensure that all my students make significant progress this year.
25.In this school: Students hear a lot about the importance of making the honor roll or being recognized at honor assemblies.
26.I give a wide range of assignments‚ matched to students’ needs and skill level.
27.In this school: A real effort is made to show students how the work they do in school is related to their lives outside of school.
28.I can deal with almost any learning problem.
29.In this school: Students are encouraged to compete with each other academically.
mastery Goal Structure for Students (alpha 0.81)‚ Performance Goal Structure for Students (alpha 0.71)‚ mastery Approaches (alpha 0.69)‚ Performance Approaches (alpha 0.69)‚ Personal Teaching Efficacy (alpha 0.74)
1 = "Strongly disagree‚” 3 = "Somewhat agree‚” and 5 = "Strongly agree."
mastery Goal Structure for Students (3‚ 5‚ 14‚ 16‚ 20‚ 22‚ 27)‚ Performance Goal Structure for Students (7‚ 10‚ 12‚ 15‚ 25‚ 29)‚ mastery Approaches (4‚ 11‚ 13‚ 26)‚ Performance Approaches (1‚ 9‚ 17‚ 19‚ 21)‚ Personal Teaching Efficacy (2‚ 6‚ 8‚ 18‚ 23‚ 24‚ 28)
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Midgley‚ C.‚ & Urdan‚ T. (1995). Predictors of middle school students’ use of self-handicapping strategies. Journal of Early Adolescence‚ 15‚ 389-411.
Anderman‚ E.‚ & Midgley‚ C. (1997). Changes in personal achievement goals and the perceived classroom goal structures across the transition to middle level schools. Contemporary Educational Psychology‚ 22‚ 269-298.
Kaplan‚ A.‚ & Midgley‚ C. (1997). The effect of achievement goals: Does level of academic efficacy make a difference? Contemporary Educational Psychology‚ 22‚ 415-435.
Ryan‚ A. M.‚ Hicks‚ L.‚ & Midgley‚ C. (1997). Social goals‚ academic goals‚ and avoiding seeking help in the classroom. Journal of Early Adolescence‚ 17‚ 152-171
Midgley‚ C.‚ Kaplan‚ A.‚ Middleton‚ M.‚ Urdan‚ T.‚ Maehr. M. L.‚ Hicks‚ L.‚ Anderman‚ E.‚ & Roeser‚ R. W. (1998). Development and validation of scales assessing students’ achievement goal orientation. Contemporary Educational Psychology‚ 23(2)‚ 113-131.
Urdan‚ T.‚ Midgley‚ C.‚ & Anderman‚ E. (1998). The role of classroom goal structure in students’ use of self-handicapping strategies. American Educational Research Journal‚ 35‚ 101-122.
Arunkumar‚ R.‚ Midgley‚ C.‚ & Urdan‚ T. (1999). Perceiving high or low home/school dissonance: Longitudinal effects on adolescent academic and emotional adjustment. Journal of Research on Adolescence‚ 9‚ 441-467.
Midgley‚ C.‚ Maehr‚ M.L.‚ Hruda‚ L.‚ Anderman‚ E.M.‚ Anderman‚ L.‚ Freeman‚ K.E.‚ Gheen‚ M.‚ Kaplan‚ A.‚ Kumar‚ R.‚ Middleton‚ M.J.‚ Nelson‚ J.‚ Roeser‚ R.‚ & Urdan‚ T. (2000). Manual for the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS). Ann Arbor‚ MI: University of Michigan.
Midgley‚ C.‚ Kaplan‚ A.‚ & Middleton‚ M. (2001). Performance-approach goals: Good for what‚ for whom‚ under what circumstances‚ and at what cost? Journal of Educational Psychology‚ 93‚77-86.
Midgley‚ C. (2002). Goals‚ goal structures‚ and patterns of adaptive learning. Mahwah‚ NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum