Participant Role Questionnaire

Participant Role Questionnaire
Salmivalli‚ Lagerspetz‚ Bjorkqvist‚ Osterman‚ & Kaukiainen‚ 1996; Salmivalli & Voeten‚ 2004
© 1996 John Wiley & Sons Inc.
The name of each student in the class is printed on the questionnaire. Respondents are asked to determine‚ on a 3-point scale (never‚ sometimes‚ often)‚ how often each of their classmates behaves in the ways described.
The Bully Scale
1. Starts bullying
2. Makes the others join in.
3. Always finds new ways of harassing the victim
The Assistant Scale
1. Joins in the bullying‚ when someone else has started it
2. Assists the bully.
3. Helps the bully‚ maybe by catching the victim
The Reinforcer Scale
1. Comes around to see the situation.
2. Laughs
3. Incites the bully by shouting or saying: “Show him/her!”
The Defender Scale
1. Comforts the victim or encourages him/her to tell the teacher about the bullying
2. Tells the others to stop bullying
3. Tries to make the others stop bullying
The Outsider Scale
1. Is not usually present in bullying situations
2. Stays outside the situation
3. Doesn’t take sides with anyone
Copyright © 1996 John Wiley & Sons‚ Inc. Reproduced by special permission of the publisher‚ John Wiley & Sons Inc.‚ 111 River Street‚ Mail Stop 8-02‚ Hoboken‚ NJ 07030‚ from: Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status within the gr‎oup ‎by Christina Salmivalli et al. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission from John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Bully scale = 0.93
Assistant scale = 0.95
Reinforcer scale = 0.90
Defender scale = 0.89
Outsider scale = 0.88
  • Bullying
  • Victim
This instrument can be found on page 101 of Measuring Bullying Victimization‚ Perpetration‚ and Bystander Experiences:A Compendium of Assessment Tools‚ available online at:
Points are assigned as follows:
Never = 0‚ Sometimes = 1‚ Often = 2
Salmivalli‚ C.‚ & Voeten‚ M. (2004). Connections between attitudes‚ group norms‚ and behaviors associated with bullying in schools. International Journal of Behavioral Development‚ 28‚ 246-258.

For a longer version: Salmivalli‚ C.‚ Lagerspetz‚ K.‚ Bjorkqvist‚ K.‚ Osterman‚ K.‚ & Kaukiainen‚ A. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status within the group. Aggressive Behavior‚ 22‚ 1–15.

Developer’s Contact Information
Christina Salmivalli‚ PhD
Department of Psychology‚
University of Turku‚
Turku‚ Finland
Tel: +358 2 333 5426