Modified Aggression Scale


  1. I hit back when someone hit me first.
  2. I encouraged other students to fight.
  3. I pushed‚ shoved‚ slapped‚ or kicked other students.
  4. I got into a physical fight because I was angry.
  5. I walked away from a fight.


  1. I teased other students.
  2. I said things about other students to make other students laugh (made fun of them).
  3. I called other students names.
  4. I threatened to hit or hurt another student.


  1. I frequently get angry.
  2. I was angry most of the day.
  3. I got into a physical fight because I was angry.
  4. I was mean to someone when I was angry.
  5. I took my anger out on an innocent person.

Caring/Cooperative Behavior

  1. I helped someone stay out of a fight.
  2. I told other students how I felt when they did something I liked.
  3. I cooperated with others.
  4. I told other students how I felt when they upset me.
  5. I protected someone from a “bully.”
  6. I gave someone a compliment.
  7. I helped other students solve a problem.
  8. I avoided getting in trouble at home‚ school‚ or in the community.

(Items 5‚ 10‚ 13‚ 14‚ 15‚ 19‚ 20 and 22 were added by Bosworth & Espelage‚ 1995. Item 6 was modified.)


This scale is composed of four subscales: fighting‚ bullying‚ anger‚ cooperative/caring behavior. It is a modified version of the Aggression Scale . Respondents are presented with a series of behaviors‚ and are asked to mark with a circle the number of times they did that behavior during the last 30 days.


This tool touches on the following keywords:


This instrument can be found on pages 169-170 of Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes‚ Behaviors‚ and Influences Among Youths: A Compendium of Assessment Tools‚ available online at:

Middle school age youth (has been used with grades 6–8 in previous research).


Pencil and paper self-report. Point values are assigned as follows:

  • No opportunity = 1
  • Never = 1
  • 1 or 2 times = 2
  • 3 or 4 times = 3
  • 5 or more times = 4

The Fighting subscale is calculated by reverse coding Item 5 and summing across all five items. A total of 20 points is possible and a high score indicates more aggression or fighting. The other three subscales are calculated similarly‚ by summing across all responses. The Bullying subscale has a total of 16 points; the Anger subscale has a total of 20 points; and the Caring/Cooperative Behavior subscale has a total of 32 points. High scores indicate more bullying behavior‚ more anger‚ and more caring/cooperative behavior.


Orpinas‚ P. (1993). Skills training and social influences for violence prevention in middle schools. a curriculum evaluation. Doctoral Dissertation. Houston‚ TX: University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston‚ School of Public Health.

Bosworth K‚ Espelage D. Teen Conflict Survey. Bloomington‚ IN: Center for Adolescent Studies‚ Indiana University‚ 1995.