Mathtech Questionnaires: Sexuality Questionnaires for Adolescents

Mathtech Questionnaires: Sexuality Questionnaires for Adolescents

DOUGLAS KIRBY,1 ETR Associates

The questionnaires have two purposes: first, to measure the most important knowledge areas, attitudes, values, skills, and behaviors that either facilitate a positive and fulfilling sexuality or reduce unintended pregnancy among adolescents; and second, to measure important possible outcomes of sexuality education programs.

The Center for Disease Control funded Mathtech, a private research firm, to develop methods of evaluating sexuality education programs. Mathtech reviewed existing questionnaires for adolescents and determined that it was necessary to develop new questionnaires. With the help of about 20 professionals in the field of adolescent sexuality and pregnancy, Mathtech identified more than 100 possible outcomes of sexuality education programs and then had 100 professionals rate (anonymously) each of those outcomes according to its importance in reducing unintended pregnancy and facilitating a positive and fulfilling sexuality. Mathtech then calculated the mean ratings of those outcomes and developed questionnaires to measure many of the most important outcomes. The questionnaires, which measure these important outcomes, include the Knowledge Test, the Attitude and Value Inventory, and the Behavior Inventory.

KNOWLEDGE TEST

Description

The Knowledge Test is a 34-item multiple-choice test. It includes questions in the following areas: adolescent physical development, adolescent relationships, adolescent sexual activity, adolescent pregnancy, adolescent marriage, the probability of pregnancy, birth control, and sexually transmitted disease. It has been used successfully with both junior and senior high school students.

To develop the questionnaires, we completed the following steps: (a) generated between 5 and 20 items in each

of the content areas that the 100 professionals indicated as important; (b) pretested the questionnaire with small groups of adolescents and adults, and clarified many items;

(c) administered the questionnaire to 729 adolescents, analyzed their answers, removed items that were too easy or too difficult, and also removed items not positively related to the overall test score; (d) removed questions from content domains that had too many questions; and (e) made numerous refinements following subsequent administrations of the questionnaires and reviews by other professionals.

Response Mode and Timing

Respondents circle the single best answer to each question. Bright students commonly take about 15 to 20 minutes; slower students may take as long as 45 minutes to complete the questionnaire.

Scoring

The answers to the test are included at the end of the test (see the Exhibit). To obtain the percentage correct, count the number of correct answers and divide by 34. No special provisions are made for students who do not answer questions.

Reliability

The test was administered to 58 adolescents on one occasion, and then again 2 weeks later. The test-retest reliability coefficient was .89.

Validity

Older students obtained higher scores than younger students; and students with overall higher grade point

1Address correspondence to Douglas Kirby, ETR Associates, P. O. Box 1830, Santa Cruz, CA 95061–1830; e-mail: [email protected]

averages had higher scores than students with lower grade point averages. Content validity was determined by experts who selected both the domains and the items for the domains.

ATTITUDE AND VALUE INVENTORY

Description

The Attitude and Value Inventory includes 14 different scales, each consisting of five 5-point Likert-type items. The responses include strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, strongly agree. The scales are identified in Table 1.

To develop the questionnaires, we completed the following steps: (a) generated 5 to 10 items for each of the psychological outcomes rated important by the 100 experts;

(b) had the items reviewed by small groups of both adults and adolescents who made suggestions for changes; (c) had two psychologists trained in questionnaire design and scale construction examine each item for unidimensionality and clarity; and (d) had more than 200 adolescents complete the questionnaire, removing those items that had a correlation coefficient greater than .30 with the Crowne-Marlowe (1964) Social Desirability Scale, that had the lowest scale loadings on each scale, and that had mean scores near the minimum or maximum possible score.

Response Mode and Timing

Respondents should circle the number indicating their agreement/disagreement with each item. Bright adolescents complete the questionnaire in about 10 minutes; slower stu- dents may take a half hour.

Scoring

Following the Attitude and Value Inventory are all the scales, with the items grouped by scale. In front of each item is a plus sign or minus sign indicating whether the item

Reliability Coefficients for the Scales in the Attitude and V alue Inventory

Cronbach’s alpha Scale

should be positively scored or reverse scored. The mean score for each scale should be determined by adding the responses and dividing by 5. Higher scores represent more favorable attitudes.

Reliability

Reliability was determined by administering the questionnaire to 990 students and calculating Cronbach’s alpha. These are included in Table 1.

BEHAVIOR INVENTORY

Description

Many behaviors have at least three important components or aspects to them: the skill with which the behavior is completed, the comfort experienced during that behavior, and the frequency of that behavior. The Behavior Inventory measures these three aspects of several kinds of behavior. The actual measures are identified in Tables 2 and 3.

The questions measuring skills use 5-point scales with answers ranging from almost always to almost never; those measuring comfort use 4-point scales ranging from comfortable to very uncomfortable; those measuring sexual activity, use of birth control, and frequency of communication ask how many times during the previous month the respondent engaged in the specified activity.

TABLE 2

Reliability Coefficients for the Scales in the Behavior Inventory

Test Retest ra

n

Alphab

Scale

.84

39

.58

541

Social decision making skills

.65

36

.61

464

Sexual decision making skills

.57

41

.75

529

Communication skills

.68

32

.62

409

Assertiveness skills

.88

17

.58

243

Birth control assertiveness skills

.69

40

.81

517

Comfort engaging in social

activities

.66

36

.66

461

Comfort talking with friends, girl/

boyfriend, and parents about sex

.40

33

.63

133

Comfort talking with friends, girl/

boyfriend, and parents about birth

control

.89

Clarity of long term goals

.62

39

.73

156

Comfort talking with parents about

.73

Clarity of personal sexual values

sex and birth control

.81

Understanding of emotional needs

.44

41

NAc

NA

Comfort expressing concern and

.78

Understanding of personal social behavior

caring

.80

Understanding of personal sexual response

.68

35

.68

455

Comfort being sexually assertive

.66

Attitude toward gender roles

(saying no)

.75

Attitude toward sexuality in life

.70

37

NA

NA

Comfort having current sex life,

.72

Attitude toward the importance of birth control

what ever it may be

.94

Attitude toward premarital sex

.38

14

.86

449

Comfort getting and using birth

.58

Attitude toward the use of force and pressure in

control

sexual activity

 

.70 Recognition of the importance of the family

.73 Self esteem

.85 Satisfaction with personal sexuality

.81 Satisfaction with social relationships

aThe test retest coefficient is the correlation coefficient based upon two administrations of the same questionnaire 2 weeks apart.

bAlpha is Cronbach’s alpha based upon all the intercorrelations within each scale.

cNA means not applicable because alpha requires two or more items, and these

                                                                                                                                   scales had only one item.

TABLE 3‌

Test retest Reliability Coefficients for the Behavior Questions in the Behavior Inventory

 

ra Question

 

1.00 Q43: Ever had sexual intercourse

.78 Q44: Had intercourse last month

.88 Q45: Frequency of intercourse last month

.97 Q46: Frequency of intercourse last month with no birth control

.89 Q47: Frequency of intercourse last month using diaphragm, withdawal, rhythm, or foam (without condoms)

.97 Q48: Frequency of intercourse last month using pill, condoms, or IUD

  1. Q49: Frequency of conversations with parents about sex last month

  2. Q50: Frequency of conversations with friends about sex last month

.83 Q51: Frequency of conversations with boy/girlfriend about sex last month

.71 Q52: Frequency of conversations with parents about birth control last month

.69 Q53: Frequency of conversations with friends about birth control last month

  1. Q54: Frequency of conversations with boy/girlfriend about birth control last month

    Note= 41.

    aThe measure of reliability is the correlation coefficient between the two administrations of the questionnaire given 2 weeks apart.

    It is important to realize that the questions measuring skill do not try to assess skill in the classroom but, instead, measure the frequency with which respondents actually use important skills in everyday life.

    The panel of 100 experts rated most highly most of the skills, areas of comfort, and behaviors for which we devel- oped measures. We tried many different ways of measuring skills and after a variety of attempts and pretests with small groups of adolescents, we settled on the current approach in which we identified key behaviors in various skills and simply asked what proportion of the time respondents engage in those behaviors.

    The scales measuring comfort and behaviors flowed directly from the outcomes specified by the experts. We conducted minitests with both adults and adolescents to determine for how many months they could accurately measure their communication and sexual behavior. Nearly all adolescents could remember their behavior for the pre- vious month.

    The entire inventory was reviewed by psychologists who examined each item for clarity, unidimensionality, and comprehensibility. More than 100 adolescents completed the questionnaire; their responses indicated that most data were reliable.

    Because of the great sensitivity of these questions, the researcher should (a) get appropriate approval to administer the questionnaire, (b) emphasize to the students that com- pleting the questionnaire is voluntary, and (c) take every reasonable measure to assure that the answers remain abso- lutely anonymous. Remember, if students learn that some

    particular girl (or boy) has experienced (or not experienced) sex, that person’s reputation can be greatly damaged.

    Response Mode and Timing

    Respondents should circle the number indicating their agreement/disagreement with each item. The questionnaire takes adolescents between 20 and 45 minutes to complete. Adolescents who are brighter or not sexually active com- plete it more quickly.

    Scoring

    Most of the questions measuring skills or comfort should be combined into scales. Following the inventory are the items grouped into scales. In front of each item measuring a skill or area of comfort is a plus sign or minus sign, indicat- ing whether the item should be positively scored or reverse scored. The mean score for these scales should be determined by adding the responses and dividing by the number of items. Higher scores represent more favorable attitudes.

    The questions measuring the existence and frequency of sexual behavior should not be combined into scales. Moreover, higher scores do not commonly represent more favorable behaviors.

    Reliability

    For all items test-retest reliability was determined by admin- istering the questionnaire twice, 2 weeks apart. However, because some students were not sexually active, the sample sizes are unreasonably low for some items. Moreover, the test-retest reliability coefficients are artificially low for some items because the sexual activities of teenagers change from one 2-week period to the next. Consequently, Cronbach’s alpha is also given for those scales having two or more items. All of these coefficients are presented in Tables 2 and 3.

    Validity

    The most sensitive of the behavior questions had other questions that should have been consistent. For example, 10 different questions provide information about whether or not the respondent had had sex. Specifically written computer programs indicated that more than 95% of the questionnaires had answers that were consistent.

    Other Information

    These questionnaires are in the public domain and can be used without permission. However, appropriate citation is requested. They are included in Kirby (1984).

    References

    Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1964). The approval motive: Studies in evaluative dependence. New York: Wiley.

    Kirby, D. (1984). Sexuality education: An evaluation of programs and their effects. Santa Cruz, CA: Network Publications.

    Exhibit

    image

    Knowledge Test

    We are trying to find out is this program is successful. You can help us by completing this questionnaire.

    To keep your answers confidential and private, do not put your name anywhere on this questionnaire. Please use a regular pen or pencil so that all questionnaires will look about the same and no one will know which is yours.

    Because this study is important, your answers are also important. Please answer each question carefully. Thank you for your help. Name of school or organization where course was taken:                                               

    Teacher’s name:                                                           Your birth date: Month Day                                              Your sex (Check one): Male Female                                        Your grade level in school (Check one): 9_10_11_12_

    Please circle the one best answer to each of the questions below.

    1. By the time teenagers graduate from high schools in the United States:

      1. only a few have had sex (sexual intercourse).

      2. about half have had sex.

      3. about 80% have had sex.

    2. During their menstrual periods, girls:

      1. are too weak to participate in sports or exercise.

      2. have a normal, monthly release of blood from the uterus.

      3. cannot possibly become pregnant.

      4. should not shower or bathe.

      5. all of the above.

    3. It is harmful for a woman to have sex (sexual intercourse) when she:

      1. is pregnant.

      2. is menstruating.

      3. has a cold.

      4. has a sexual partner with syphilis.

      5. none of the above.

    4. Some contraceptives:

      1. can be obtained only with a doctor’s prescription.

      2. are available at family planning clinics.

      3. can be bought over the counter at drug stores.

      4. can be obtained by people under 18 without their parents’ permission.

      5. all of the above.

    5. If 10 couples have sexual intercourse regularly without using any kind of birth control, the number of couples who become pregnant by the end of 1 year is about:

      1. one.

      2. three.

      3. six

      4. nine.

      5. none of the above.

    6. When unmarried teenage girls learn they are pregnant, the largest group of them decide:

      1. to have an abortion.

      2. to put the child up for adoption.

      3. to raise the child at home.

      4. to marry and raise the child with the husband.

      5. none of the above.

    7. People having sexual intercourse can best prevent getting a sexually transmitted disease (VD or STD) by using:

      1. condoms (rubbers).

      2. contraceptive foam.

      3. the pill.

      4. withdrawal (pulling out).

    8. When boys go through puberty:

      1. they lose their “baby fat” and become slimmer.

      2. their penises become larger.

      3. they produce sperm.

      4. their voices become lower.

      5. all of the above.

    9. Married teenagers:

      1. have the same social lives as their unmarried friends.

      2. avoid pressure from friends and family.

      3. still fit in easily with their old friends.

      4. usually support themselves without help from their parents.

      5. none of the above.

    10. If a couple has sexual intercourse and uses no birth control, the woman might get pregnant:

      1. anytime during the month.

      2. only 1 week before menstruation begins.

      3. only during menstruation.

      4. only 1 week after menstruation begins.

      5. only 2 weeks after menstruation begins.

    11. The method of birth control which is least effective is:

      1. a condom with foam.

      2. the diaphragm with spermicidal jelly.

      3. withdrawal (pulling out).

      4. the pill.

      5. abstinence (not having intercourse).

    12. It is possible for a woman to become pregnant:

      1. the first time she has sex (sexual intercourse).

      2. if she has sexual intercourse during her menstrual period.

      3. if she has sexual intercourse standing up.

      4. if sperm get near the opening of the vagina, even though the man’s penis does not enter her body.

      5. all of the above.

    13. Physically:

      1. girls usually mature earlier than boys.

      2. most boys mature earlier than most girls.

      3. all boys and girls are fully mature by age 16.

      4. all boys and girls are fully mature by age 18.

    14. It is impossible now to cure:

      1. syphilis.

      2. gonorrhea.

      3. herpes virus # 2.

      4. vaginitis.

      5. all of the above.

    15. When men and women are physically mature:

      1. each female ovary releases two eggs each month.

      2. each female ovary releases millions of eggs each month.

      3. male testes produce one sperm for each ejaculation (climax).

      4. male testes produce millions of sperm for each ejaculation (climax).

      5. none of the above.

    16. Teenagers who choose to have sexual intercourse may possibly:

      1. have to deal with a pregnancy.

      2. feel guilty.

      3. become more close to their sexual partners.

      4. become less close to their sexual partners.

      5. all of the above.

    17. As they enter puberty, teenagers become more interested in sexual activities because:

      1. their sex hormones are changing.

      2. the media (TV, movies, magazines, records) push sex for teenagers.

      3. some of their friends have sex and expect them to have sex also.

      4. all of the above.

    18. To use a condom the correct way, a person must:

      1. leave some space at the tip for the guy’s fluid.

      2. use a new one every time sexual intercourse occurs.

      3. hold it on the penis while pulling out of the vagina.

      4. all of the above.

    19. The proportion of American girls who become pregnant before turning 20 is:

      1. 1 out of 3.

      2. 1 out of 11.

      3. 1 out of 43.

      4. 1 out of 90.

    20. In general, children born to young teenage parents:

      1. have few problems because their parents are emotionally mature.

      2. have a greater chance of being abused by their parents.

      3. have normal birth weight.

      4. have a greater chance of being healthy.

      5. none of the above.

    21. Treatment for venereal disease is best if:

      1. both partners are treated at the same time.

      2. only the partner with the symptoms sees a doctor.

      3. the person takes the medicine only until the symptoms disappear.

      4. the partners continue having sex (sexual intercourse).

      5. all of the above.

    22. Most teenagers:

      1. have crushes or infatuations that last a short time.

      2. feel shy or awkward when first dating.

      3. feel jealous sometimes.

      4. worry a lot about their looks.

      5. all of the above.

    23. Most unmarried girls who have children while still in high school:

      1. depend upon their parents for support.

      2. finish high school and graduate with their class.

      3. never have to be on public welfare.

      4. have the same social lives as their peers.

      5. all of the above.

    24. Syphilis:

      1. is one of the most dangerous of the venereal diseases.

      2. is known to cause blindness, insanity, and death if untreated.

      3. is first detected as a chancre sore on the genitals.

      4. all of the above.

    25. For a boy, nocturnal emissions (wet dreams) means he:

      1. has a sexual illness.

      2. is fully mature physically.

      3. is experiencing a normal part of growing up.

      4. is different from most other boys.

    26. If people have sexual intercourse, the advantage of using condoms is that they:

      1. help prevent getting or giving VD.

      2. can be bought in drug stores by either sex.

      3. do not have dangerous side effects.

      4. do not require a prescription.

      5. all of the above.

    27. If two people want to have a close relationship, it is important that they:

      1. trust each other and are honest and open with each other.

      2. date other people.

      3. always think of the other person first.

      4. always think of their own needs first.

      5. all of the above.

    28. The physical changes of puberty:

      1. happen in a week or two.

      2. happen to different teenagers at different ages.

      3. happen quickly for girls and slowly for boys.

      4. happen quickly for boys and slowly for girls.

    29. For most teenagers, their emotions (feelings):

      1. are pretty stable.

      2. seem to change frequently.

      3. don’t concern them very much.

      4. are easy to put into words.

      5. are ruled by their thinking.

    30. Teenagers who marry, compared to those who do not:

      1. are equally likely to finish high school.

      2. are equally likely to have children.

      3. are equally likely to get divorced.

      4. are equally likely to have successful work careers.

      5. none of the above.

    31. The rhythm method (natural family planning):

      1. means couples cannot have intercourse during certain days of the woman’s menstrual cycle.

      2. requires the woman to keep a record of when she has her period.

      3. is effective less than 80% of the time.

      4. is recommended by the Catholic church.

      5. all of the above.

    32. The pill:

      1. can be used by any woman.

      2. is a good birth control method for women who smoke.

      3. usually makes menstrual cramping worse.

      4. must be taken for 21 or 28 days in order to be effective.

      5. all of the above.

    33. Gonorrhea:

      1. is 10 times more common than syphilis.

      2. is a disease that can be passed from mothers to their children during birth.

      3. makes many men and women sterile (unable to have babies).

      4. is often difficult to detect in women.

      5. all of the above.

    34. People choosing a birth control method:

      1. should think only about the cost of the method.

      2. should choose whatever method their friends are using.

      3. should learn about all the methods before choosing the one that’s best for them.

      4. should get the method that’s easiest to get.

      5. all of the above.

Answers to the Knowledge Test

Question

Answer

Question

Answer

Question

Answer

1

b

12

e

23

a

2

b

13

a

24

d

3

d

14

c

25

c

4

e

15

d

26

e

5

d

16

e

27

a

6

a

17

d

28

b

7

a

18

d

29

b

8

e

19

a

30

e

9

e

20

b

31

e

10

a

21

a

32

d

11

c

22

e

33

e

34

c

Attitude and Value Inventory

The questions below are not a test of how much you know. We are interested in what you believe about some important issues. Please rate each statement according to how much you agree or disagree with it. Everyone will have different answers. Your answer is correct if it describes you very well.

Circle: 1 = if you Strongly Disagree with the statement. a 2 = if you Somewhat Disagree with the statement. 3 = if you feel Neutral about the statement. 4 = if you Somewhat Agree with the statement. 5 = if you Strongly Agree with the statement.

  1. I am very happy with my friendships.

  2. Unmarried people should not have sex (sexual intercourse).

  3. Overall, I am satisfied with myself.

  4. Two people having sex should use some form of birth control if they aren’t ready for a child.

  5. I’m confused about my personal sexual values and beliefs.

  6. I often find myself acting in ways I don’t understand.

  7. I am not happy with my sex life.

  8. Men should not hold jobs traditionally held by women.

  9. People should never take “no” for an answer when they want to have sex.

  10. I don’t know what I want out of life.

  11. Families do very little for their children.

  12. Sexual relationships create more problems than they’re worth.

  13. I’m confused about what I should and should not do sexually.

  14. I know what I want and need emotionally.

  15. No one should pressure another person into sexual activity.

  16. Birth control is not very important.

  17. I know what I need to be happy.

  18. I am not satisfied with my sexual behavior (sex life).

  19. I usually understand the way I act.

  20. People should not have sex before marriage.

  21. I do not know much about my own physical and emotional sexual responses.

  22. It is all right for two people to have sex before marriage if they are in love.

  23. I have a good idea of where I’m headed in the future.

  24. Family relationships are not important.

  25. I have trouble knowing what my beliefs and values are about my personal sexual behavior.

  26. I feel I do not have much to be proud of.

  27. I understand how I behave around others.

  28. Women should behave differently from men most of the time.

  29. People should have sex only if they are married.

  30. I know what I want out of life.

  31. I have a good understanding of my own personal feelings and reactions.

  32. I don’t have enough friends.

  33. I’m happy with my sexual behavior now.

  34. I don’t understand why I behave with my friends as I do.

  35. At times I think I’m no good at all.

  36. I know how I react in different sexual situations.

34. I have a clear picture of what I’d like to be doing in the future.

  1. My friendships are not as good as I would like them to be.

  2. Sexually, I feel like a failure.

  3. More people should be aware of the importance of birth control.

  4. At work and at home, women should not have to behave differently from men, when they are equally capable.

  5. Sexual relationships make life too difficult.

  6. I wish my friendships were better.

  7. I feel that I have many good personal qualities.

  8. I am confused about my reactions in sexual situations.

  9. It is all right to pressure someone into sexual activity.

  10. People should not pressure others to have sex with them.

  11. Most of the time my emotional feelings are clear to me.

  12. I have my own set of rules to guide my sexual behavior (sex life).

  13. Women and men should be able to have the same jobs, when they are equally capable.

  14. I don’t know what my long-range goals are.

  15. When I’m in a sexual situation, I get confused about my feelings.

  16. Families are very important.

  17. It is all right to demand sex from a girlfriend or boyfriend.

  18. A sexual relationship is one of the best things a person can have.

  19. Most of the time I have a clear understanding of my feelings and emotions.

  20. I am very satisfied with my sexual activities just the way they are.

  21. Sexual relationships only bring trouble to people.

  22. Birth control is not as important as some people say.

  23. Family relationships cause more trouble than they’re worth.

  24. If two people have sex and aren’t ready to have a child, it is very important they use birth control.

  25. I’m confused about what I need emotionally.

  26. It is all right for two people to have sex before marriage.

  27. Sexual relationships provide an important and fulfilling part of life.

  28. People should be expected to behave in certain ways just because they are male or female.

  29. Most of the time I know why I behave the way I do.

  30. I feel good having as many friends as I have.

  31. I wish I had more respect for myself.

  32. Family relationships can be very valuable.

  33. I know for sure what is right and wrong sexually for me.

    aThe five response options are repeated following each item.

    Scales in the Attitude and Value Inventory

    Clarity of Long-Term Goals: –Q10, +Q23, +Q30, +Q37, +Q51.

    Clarity of Personal Sexual Values: –Q5, –Q13, –Q25, +Q49, +70.

    Understanding of Emotional Needs: +Q14, +Q17, +Q48, +Q56, –Q62.

    Understanding of Personal Social Behavior: –Q6, +Q19, +Q27, –Q34, +Q66.

    Understanding of Personal Sexual Responses: –Q21, +Q31, +Q36, –Q45, –Q52. Attitude Toward Various Gender Role Behaviors: –Q8, –Q28, +Q41, +Q50, +Q65. Attitude Toward Sexuality in Life: –Q12, –Q42, +Q55, –Q58, +64. Attitude Toward the Importance of Birth Control: +Q4, –Q16, +Q40, –Q59, +Q61. Attitude Toward Premarital Intercourse: +Q2, +Q20, –Q22, +Q29, –Q63. Attitude Toward the Use of Pressure and Force in Sexual Activity: –Q9, +Q15, –Q46, +Q47, +Q54. Recognition of the Importance of the Family: –Q11, –Q24, +Q53, –Q60, +Q69.

    Self-Esteem: +Q3, –Q26, –Q35, +Q44, –Q68.

    Satisfaction with Personal Sexuality: –Q7, –Q18, +Q33, –Q39, +Q57.

    Satisfaction with Social Relationships: +Q1, –Q32, –Q38, –Q43, +Q67.

    image

    Note. + means that the item is positive; – means the item is negative and should be reverse scored. On some scales, people will have different views about whether larger scores represent socially desirable or undesirable scores.

    Part 1

    Behavior Inventory

    The questions below ask how often you have done some things. Some of the questions are personal and ask about your social life and sex life. Some questions will not apply to you. Please do not conclude from the questions that you should have had all of the experiences the questions ask about. Instead, just mark whatever answer describes you best.

    Circle: 1 = if you do it almost never, which means about 5% of the time or less.

    2 = if you do it sometimes, which means about 25% of the time. 3 = if you do if half the time, which means about 50% of the time. 4 = if you do it usually, which means about 75% of the time.

    5 = if you do it almost always, which means about 95% of the time or more.

    DNA = if the question does not apply to you.

    1. When things you’ve done turn out poorly, how often do you take responsibility for your behavior and its consequences?a
    2. When things you’ve done turn out poorly, how often do you blame others?

    3. When you are faced with a decision, how often do you take responsibility for making a decision about it?

    4. When you have to make a decision, how often do you think hard about the consequences of each possible choice?

    5. When you have to make a decision, how often do you get as much information as you can before making the decision?

    6. When you have to make a decision, how often do you first discuss it with others?

    7. When you have to make a decision about your sexual behavior (for example, going out on a date, holding hands, kissing, petting, or having sex), how often do you take responsibility for the consequences?

    8. When you have to make a decision about your sexual behavior, how often do you think hard about the consequences of each possible choice?

    9. When you have to make a decision about your sexual behavior, how often do you first get as much information as you can?

    10. When you have to make a decision about your sexual behavior, how often do you first discuss it with others?

    11. When you have to make a decision about your sexual behavior, how often do you make it on the spot without worrying about the consequences?

    12. When a friend wants to talk with you, how often are you able to clear your mind and really listen to what your friend has to say?

    13. When a friend is talking with you, how often do you ask questions if you don’t understand what your friend in saying?

    14. When a friend is talking with you, how often do you nod your head and say “yes” or something else to show that you are inter- ested?

    15. When you want to talk with a friend, how often are you able to get your friend to really listen to you?

    16. When you talk with a friend, how often do you ask for your friend’s reaction to what you’ve said?

    17. When you talk with a friend, how often do you let your feelings show?

    18. When you are with a friend you care about, how often do you let that friend know you care?

    19. When you talk with a friend, how often do you include statements like “my feelings are . . .,” “the way I think is . . .,” or “it seems to me”?

    20. When you are alone with a date or boy/girlfriend, how often can you tell him/her your feelings about what you want to do and do not want to do sexually? (If you are a boy, boy/girlfriend means girlfriend; if you are a girl, it means boyfriend.)

    21. If a boy/girl puts pressure on you to be involved sexually and you don’t want to be involved, how often do you say “no”? (If you are a boy, boy/girl means girl; if you are a girl, it means boy.)

    22. If a boy/girl puts pressure on you to be involved sexually and you don’t want to be involved, how often do you succeed in stopping it?

    23. If you have sexual intercourse with your boy/girlfriend, how often can you talk with him/her about birth control?

    24. If you have sexual intercourse and want to use birth control, how often do you insist on using birth control?

 

 

Part 2

In this section, we want to know how uncomfortable you are doing different things. Being “uncomfortable” means that it is difficult for you and it makes you nervous and uptight. For each item, circle the number that describes you best, but if the item doesn’t apply to you, circle DNA.

Circle: 1 = if you are comfortable.

2 = if you are a little uncomfortable.

3 = If you are somewhat uncomfortable. 4 = If you are very uncomfortable.

DNA = if the question does not apply to you.

    1. Getting together with a group of friends of the opposite sex.b
    2. Going to a party.

    3. Talking with teenagers of the opposite sex.

    4. Going out on a date.

    5. Talking with friends about sex.

    6. Talking with a date or boy/girlfriend about sex. (If you are a boy, boy/girlfriend means girlfriend; if you are a girl, it means boy- friend.)

    7. Talking with parents about sex.

    8. Talking with friends about birth control.

    9. Talking with a date or boy/girlfriend about birth control. (If you are a boy, boy/girlfriend means girlfriend; if you are a girl, it means boyfriend.)

    10. Talking with parents about birth control.

    11. Expressing concern and caring for others.

    12. Telling a date or boy/girlfriend what you want to do and do not want to do sexually.

    13. Saying “no” to a sexual come-on.

    14. Having your current sex life, whatever it may be (it may be doing nothing, kissing, petting, or having intercourse). If you are not having sexual intercourse, circle DNA in the four questions below.

Part 3

Circle the correct answer to the following two questions.

43. Have you ever had sex (sexual intercourse)?

yes

no

44. Have you had sex (sexual intercourse) during the last month?

yes

no

  1. Insisting on using some form of birth control, if you are having sex.

  2. Buying contraceptives at a drug store, if you are having sex.

  3. Going to a doctor or clinic for contraception, if you are having sex.

  4. Using some form of birth control, if you are having sex.

Part 4

The following questions ask how many times you did some things during the last month. Put a number in the right hand space to show the number of times you engaged in that activity. If you did not do that during the last month, put a “0” in the space.

Think carefully about the times that you have had sex during the last month. Think also about the number of times you did not use birth control and the number of times you used different types of birth control.

  1. Last month, how many times did you have sex (sexual intercourse)

  2. Last month, how many times did you have sex when you or your partner did not use any form of birth control?

  3. Last month, how many times did you have sex when you or your partner used a diaphragm, withdrawal (pulling out before releasing fluid), rhythm (not having sex on fertile days), or foam without condoms?

  4. Last month, how many times did you have sex when you or your partner used the pill, condoms (rubbers), or an IUD?

           times in the last month

    If you add your answer to questions #46, #47, and #48, the total number should equal your answer to #45. (If it does not, please cor- rect your answers.)

  5. During the last month, how many times have you had a conversation or discussion about sex with your parents?

  6. During the last month, how many times have you had a conversation or discussion about sex with your friends?

  7. During the last month, how many times have you had a conversation or discussion about sex with a date or boy/girlfriend? (If you are a boy, boy/girlfriend means girlfriend; if you are a girl, it means boyfriend.)

  8. During the last month, how many times have you had a conversation or discussion about birth control with your parents?

  9. During the last month, how many times have you had a conversation or discussion about birth control with your friends?

  10. During the last month, how many times have you had a conversation or discussion about birth control with a date or boy/girlfriend?

       times in the last month

Thank you for completing this questionnaire.

aThe six response options are repeated following Items 1–24.

bThe five response options are repeated following Items 25–42.