Element B: Behavior

Schutz, W. (1992). Beyond FIRO-B. Three new theory-derived measures. Element B: Behavior, Element F: Feelings, Element S: Self. Psychological Reports 70:915–37.

Comments: Element B is the revised form of the FIRO-B. According to the author, it is a much stronger instrument both theoretically and psychometrically. Element B: Behavior measures three areas of interpersonal behavior: inclusion, control, and openness (openness replaces affection).

Sample: Fifty students in an adult education class participated in the development of Element B. In addition, 43 people from NASA, 23 from army intelligence, and 84 university students completed the instrument in order to obtain stable reproducibility coefficients.

Reliability: The reproducibility coefficients for the six scales had a mean of 0.92. Reproducibility coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. Since the test-retest reliability coefficient (over a three-week interval) for the FIRO-B had a mean of 0.76 for the six scales, this figure was used as an approximation of the stability of the scales of Element B.

Definition of Scales: Inclusion refers to reaching the correct amount of contact with individuals (do things with, share). Control refers to reaching the correct amount of control over individuals (take charge, influence). Openness refers to reaching the correct amount of openness (disclose, tell true feelings).

Data Analysis: Reproducibility and means for scales of Element B as well as mean scores based on age and sex are provided. Pearson intercorrelations of scales on Element B and FIRO-B are included.


Schutz, W. (1987). Guide to Element B. Mill Valley, CA: Will Schutz Associates.

Element B

1. I seek out people to be with.
2. People decide what to do when we are together.
3. I am totally honest with my close friends.
4. People invite me to do things.
5. I am the dominant person when I am with people.
6. My close friends tell me their real feelings.
7. I join social groups.
8. People strongly influence my actions.
9. I confide in my close friends.
10. People invite me to join their activities.
11. I get other people to do things I want done.
12. My close friends tell me about private matters.
13. I join social organizations.
14. People control my actions.
15. I am more comfortable when people do not get too close.
16. People include me in their activities.
17. I strongly influence other people’s actions.

18. My close friends do not tell me all about themselves.
19. I am included in informal social activities.
20. I am easily led by people.
21. People should keep their private feelings to themselves.
22. People invite me to participate in their activities.
23. I take charge when I am with people socially.
24. My close friends let me know their real feelings.
25. I include people in my plans.
26. People decide things for me.
27. There are some things I do not tell anyone.
28. People include me in their social affairs.
29. I get people to do things the way I want them done.
30. My closest friends keep secrets from me.
31. I have people around me.
32. People strongly influence my ideas.
33. There are some things I would not tell anyone.
34. People ask me to participate in their discussions.
35. I take charge when I am with people.
36. My friends confide in me.
37. When people are doing things together I join them.
38. I am strongly influenced by what people say.
39. I have at least one friend to whom I can tell anything.
40. People invite me to parties.
41. I strongly influence other people’s ideas.
42. My close friends keep their feelings a secret from me.
43. I look for people to be with.
44. Other people take charge when we work together.
45. There is a part of myself I keep private.
46. People invite me to join them when we have free time.
47. I take charge when I work with people.
48. At least two of my friends tell me their true feelings.
49. I participate in group activities.
50. People often cause me to change my mind.
51. I have close relationships with few people.
52. People invite me to do things with them.
53. I see to it that people do things the way I want them to.
54. My friends tell me about their private lives.

Scoring: Respondents describe Expressed and Received behavior as well as Perceived (What I See) and Wanted (What I Want) behavior. What I See ranges from disagree to agree, while What I Want ranges from want to don’t want. Each scale receives a score from 0 to 9. The higher the score, the greater the agreement. Dissatisfaction is the difference between the scores on What I Want and What I See. Information is provided to convert FIRO-B scores into Element B scores.