Wubbels, T., and Levy, J. (1991). A comparison of interpersonal behavior of Dutch and American teachers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 15:1–18.
Comments: The 64-item Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) is based on Leary’s model (1957) of interpersonal behavior that identifies two dimensions (dominance-submission and cooperation-opposition) that correspond to the following eight scales/types of interpersonal teacher behavior patterns: leadership, helpful/friendly, understanding, student responsibility/freedom, uncertain, dissatisfied, admonishing, and strict. The QTI was translated from Dutch to English in 1985. The original Dutch version has 77 items. The first version of the American OTI had 100 items, but after item analysis, 64 items were retained (59 items are translations from the Dutch OTI). According to the authors, the QTI is useful for preservice and in service teacher education.
Sample: Thirty-one American teachers voluntarily used the OTI with two or more of their secondary school classes. A total of 1,606 students from 66 classes participated in this study. In addition, the 31 teachers completed the OTI.
Reliability: The alpha coefficients for the 66 classes were: 0.94 (leadership and understanding); 0.95 (helpful/friendly and strict); 0.86 (student responsibility/freedom); 0.96 (uncertain); 0.90 (dissatisfied); and 0.92 (admonishing). The alpha coefficients are also reported for the 1,606 students as well as for the teachers. In addition, the results of a com- parable Dutch study are included.
Validity: The validity of the OTI was established by its ability to distinguish between classes.
Factor Analysis: A varimax orthogonal rotation confirmed the two factors: the cooperation-opposition dimension and the dominance-submission dimension. These results are similar to those obtained with the original Dutch version of the OTI. There are seven items on leadership (3, 31, 36, 40, 45, 52, and 62); eight items on helpful/friendly (5, 15,
29, 35, 37, 47, 50, and 60); eight items on understanding (4, 6, 11, 13, 17, 18, 32, and 56); eight items on student
responsibility/freedom (8, 21, 25, 27, 33, 48, 49, and 64); seven items on uncertain (23, 34, 39, 42, 44, 46, and 55);
nine items on dissatisfied (7, 10, 12, 19, 26, 28, 30, 54, and 58); eight items on admonishing (16, 24, 38, 41, 43, 51,
59, and 63); and nine items on strict (1, 2, 9, 14, 20, 22, 53, 57, and 61).
Data Analysis: Means are provided for each of the eight scales with the American and Dutch samples. The results of an analysis of variance with class as a variable are included.
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Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction
1. He/she is strict.
2. We have to be silent in his/her class.
3. He/she talks enthusiastically about his/her subject.
4. He/she trusts us.
5. He/she is concerned when we have not understood him/her.
6. If we don’t agree with him/her we can talk about it.
7. He/she threatens to punish us.
8. We can decide some things in his/her class.
9. He/she is demanding.
10. He/she thinks we cheat.
11. He/she is willing to explain things again.
12. He/she thinks we don’t know everything.
13. If we want something he/she is willing to cooperate.
14. His/her tests are hard.
15. He/she helps us with our work.
16. He/she gets angry unexpectedly.
17. If we have something to say he/she will listen.
18. He/she sympathizes with us.
19. He/she tries to make us look foolish.
20. His/her standards are very high.
21. We can influence him/her.
22. We need his/her permission before we speak.
23. He/she seems uncertain.
24. He/she looks down on us.
25. We have the opportunity to choose assignments which are most interesting to us.
26. He/she is unhappy.
27. He/she lets us fool around in class.
28. He/she puts us down.
29. He/she takes a personal interest in us.
30. He/she thinks we can’t do things well.
31. He/she explains things clearly.
32. He/she realizes when we don’t understand.
33. He/she lets us get away with a lot in class.
34. He/she is hesitant.
35. He/she is friendly.
36. We learn a lot from him/her.
37. He/she is someone we can depend on.
38. He/she gets angry quickly.
39. He/she acts as if he/she does not know what to do.
40. He/she holds our attention.
41. He’s/she’s too quick to correct us when we break a rule.
42. He/she lets us boss him/her around.
43. He/she is impatient.
44. He’s/she’s not sure what to do when we fool around.
45. He/she knows everything that goes on in the classroom.
46. It’s easy to make a fool out of him/her.
47. He/she has a sense of humor.
48. He/she allows us a lot of choice in what we study.
49. He/she gives us a lot of free time in class.
50. He/she can take a joke.
51. He/she has a bad temper.
52. He/she is a good leader.
53. If we don’t finish our homework we’re scared to go to his/her class.
54. He/she seems dissatisfied.
55. He/she is timid.
56. He/she is patient.
57. He/she is severe when marking papers.
58. He/she is suspicious.
59. It is easy to pick a fight with him/her.
60. His/her class is pleasant.
61. We are afraid of him/her.
62. He/she acts confidently.
63. He/she is sarcastic.
64. He/she is lenient.
Scoring: 0 = A (never); 1 = B; 2 = C; 3 = D; and 4 = E (always). Item scores are summed to create a profile.