China MSM Stigma Scale


Previous research has documented the deleterious impact of homosexuality stigma on HIV sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the vulnerability of this group in China for HIV acquisition The China MSM Stigma Scale  assesses both impressions of the degree of societal stigmatisation of homosexuals and enacted stigma which is direct personal experiences of stigmatizing behaviours.


For psychometric information see: Steward WT, Herek GM, Ramakrishna J, Bharat S, Chandy S, Wrubel J, Ekstrand ML. HIV-related stigma: Adapting a theoretical framework for use in India. Social Science & Medicine 67 (2008) 1225–1235.

Author of Tool:

Centre for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS)

Key references:

Neilands TB, Steward WT, Choi K-H. Assessment of Stigma towards Homosexuality in China: A Study of Men Who Have Sex with Men. Arch Sex Behav. 2008 Oct;37(5):838-44.

Primary use / Purpose:

Assessment of stigma towards homosexuality in China.

China MSM Stigma Scale

Item (English translation) never once or twice a few times many times

  • 1 How often have you heard that homosexuals are not normal?
  • 2 How often have you felt that your homosexuality hurt and embarrassed your family?
  • 3 How often have you been made fun of or called names for being homosexual?
  • 4 How often have you been hit or beaten up for being homosexual?
  • 5 How often have you had to pretend that you are not homosexual in order to be accepted?
  • 6 How often has your family not accepted you because of your homosexuality?
  • 7 How often have you lost your friends because of your homosexuality?
  • 8 How often have you been kicked out of school for being homosexual?
  • 9 How often have you lost a place to live for being homosexual?
  • 10 How often have you lost a job or career opportunity for being homosexual?