Care-Receiver Efficacy Scale (CRES)
Cox et al‚ 2006
1. I am very involved in any planning that is initiated on my behalf. *
2. I frequently make care decisions that my professional caregivers agree to follow. *
3. I have learned about the knowledge and skills that various health professionals have and can offer to my situation. *
4. I find out as much as possible about the medical conditions that I have. *
5. I often give my doctor information about my situation that helps her or him make decisions about my care. *
6. I have learned about the specialized knowledge and skills that professionals have.
7. I read about the side effects of drugs that are prescribed for me.
8. I believe that I have good skills with respect to guiding my care situation.
9. I am able to ask professional caregivers about anything I don’t understand.
10.I actively work to learn more about my health problems.
11.I have learned new ways of doing things so that I don’t have to depend on others.
12.I believe that the things I do to improve my health can be effective.
13.I think of myself as a partner in my own health care.
14.I am willing to try new services.
15.I participate actively in decisions about my care.
Relational Coping with Caregivers
16.I make every effort to know about my caregiver’s needs and problems. *
17.I often provide emotional support for my caregiver. *
18.I often tell my caregiver that I love or care about him or her. *
19.My caregiver and I are good friends. *
20.I try to fi t my needs into my caregiver’s schedule. *
21.My caregiver pays attention when I talk to him or her.
22.I find ways to entertain myself so my caregiver won’t worry about me.
23.I often wait to ask for help from my caregiver until it will be convenient for my caregiver to provide assistance.
24.I try to find things I can do for my caregiver.
25.My caregiver asks me for help with the things I can do.
Perception of Dependence
26.I don’t like being dependent on anyone; it’s hard. *
27.I feel very angry about having to be dependent on others. *
28.I hate to ask for help. *
29.My greatest fear is being a burden on others. *
30.I feel like my freedom has been taken away. *
31.I have developed a number of new interests in the past few years. *
32.I can still do a number of things that I enjoyed all of my life. *
33.I am still able to find ways to participate in meaningful activities. *
34.I have a number of friends that enjoy the same activities as I do. *
35.I am able to contribute to my community. *
36.I still enjoy learning new things.
37.There are still a number of things I would like to accomplish before I die.
38.I value every day of life that I have.
39.I have made new friends since my health status has changed.
40.I have found new kinds of entertainment that replace things I am unable to do because of physical limitations.
41.I have found ways to accept the need for assistance and still enjoy life. *
42.I just accept the fact that I need help and don’t dwell on it. *
43.I believe that I can handle my feelings about increased dependency well. *
44.I have decided to just accept the fact that I need assistance. *
45.Taking help when I need it is easy. *
46.The things I did before are important in helping me accept help now.
47.I am very grateful for assistance.
48.You have to focus on the positive and retain your sense of humor when disabilities occur.
* 5-item short form scales
Self-care strategies (0.91)‚ Relational coping w/caregivers (0.82)‚ Perceptions of dependence (0.69)‚ Performance-related quality of life (0.86)‚ Accepting help (0.71)
1= Not sure at all to 5= Completely sure
Cox‚ E.‚ Green‚ K. E.‚ Seo‚ H.‚ Inaba‚ M.‚ & Ayala Quillen‚ A. (2006). Coping with late life challenges: Development and validation of the Care-Receiver Efficacy Scale. The Gerontologist‚ 46‚ 640–649.
Cox‚ E.I.‚ Green‚ K.E.‚ Hobart‚ K.‚ Jang‚ L.‚ Seo‚ H. (2007). Strengthening the late-life care process: Effects of two forms of a care-receiver efficacy intervention‚ Gerontologist ‚ 47‚ 388-397.
Ma‚ L.‚ Green‚ K.E.‚ Cox‚ E. (2012). Factor Structure Investigation of the Care-Receiver Efficacy Scale–Short-Form. Research on Aging‚ 34(1)‚ 100-107
Cox et al‚ (2006). Care-Receiver Efficacy Scale. In: Simmons C. A.‚ Lehmann P. (eds). Tools for strengths-based assessment and evaluation‚ New York‚ NY: Springer‚ pp. 298-300. (2013). Google Scholar