Power Measures

DIRECTIONS (for instructional version):
In any student/teacher relationship it is not unusual for teachers to use strategies to get their students to do certain tasks related to the classroom that students might not want to do. Below are a series of‚ strategies that might be employed by teachers to get their students to do things-‎-like study‚ do homework‚ arrive in class on time‚ and so on.
Please read the examples of the kinds of things teachers say when using each of the strategies below. Then‚ (1) indicate by circling YES or No whether the teacher in the class has ever used this strategy with you and‚ if YES‚ (2) indicate in the space after the item number how often the teacher has used this strategy with you. Rarely = 1; Occasionally = 2; Often = 3; Very Often = 4
Immediate Reward from Behavior. You will enjoy it. It will make you happy. Because it is fun. You will find it rewarding/interesting. It is a good experience.
1. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Deferred Reward from Behavior. It will help you later on in life. It will prepare you for a job (or college‚ etc.).It will prepare you for your achievement tests. It will help you with upcoming assignments.
2. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Reward from Teacher. I will give you a reward if you do. I will make it beneficial to you. I will give you a good grade (extra credit‚ etc.) if you do.
3. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______:
Reward from Others. Others will respect you if you do. Others will be proud of you. Your friends will like you if you do. Your parents will be pleased.
4. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Self-Esteem. You will feel good about yourself if you do. You are the best person to do it. You are good at it. You always do such a good job. Because you are capable!
5. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Punishment from Behavior. You will lose if you don’t. You will be unhappy if you don’t. You will be hurt if you don’t. It’s your loss. You’ll feel bad if you don’t.
6. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Punishment from Teacher. I will punish you if you don’t. I will make it miserable for you. I’ll give you an “F” if you don’t. I will take points off if you don’t.
7. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Punishment from Others. No one will like you. Your friends will make fun of you. Your parents will punish you if you don’t. Your classmates will reject you.
8. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Guilt. If you don’t‚ others will be hurt. You’ll make others unhappy if you don’t. Your parents will feel bad if you don’t. Other will be punished if you
9. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Teacher-Student Relationship: Positive. I will like you better if you do. I will respect you. I will think more highly of you. I will appreciate you more if you do. I will be proud of you.
10. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Teacher-Student Relationship: Negative. I will dislike you if you don’t. I will lose respect for you. I will think less of you if you don’t. I won’t be proud of you. I’ll be disappointed in you.
11. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Legitimate: Higher Authority. Do it‚ I’m just telling you what I was told. It is a rule‚ I have to do it and so do you. It’s a school rule. It’s school policy. The principal (dean‚ etc.) said so
12. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Legitimate: Teacher Authority. Because I told you to. You don’t have a choice. I’m in ch‎arge‚ not you. Don’t ask‚ just do it. I’m the teacher‚ you’re the student. You’re here to work.
13. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Personal (Student) Responsibility. It is your obligation. It is your turn. Everyone has to do her/his share. It’s your job. Everyone has to pull her/his own weight.
14. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Responsibility to Class. Your group needs it done. The class depends on you. All your friends are counting on you. Don’t let your group down. You’ll ruin it for the rest of the class.
15. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Formative Rules. We voted‚ and the majority rules. All of your friends are doing it. Everyone else has to do it. The rest of the class is doing it. It’s part of growing up.
16. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Debt. You owe me one. Pay your debt. You promised to do it. I did it last time. You said you’d try this time.
17. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Altruism. If you do this‚ it will help others. Others will benefit it you do. It will make others happy if you do. I’m not asking you to do it for yourself; do it for the good of the class.
18. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Peer Modeling. Your friends do it. Classmates you respect do it. The friends you admire do it. Other students you like do it. All your friends are doing it.
19. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Teacher Modeling. This is the way I always do it. When I was your age‚ I did it. People who are like me do it. I bad to do this when I was in school. Teachers you respect do it.
20. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Expert Teacher. From my experience‚ it is a good idea. From what I have learned‚ it is what you should do. This has always worked for me. Trust me-‎-I know what I’m doing. I had to do this before I became a teacher.
21. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
Teacher Feedback. Because I need to know bow well you understand this. To see how well I’ve taught you. To see how well you can do it. It will help me know your problem areas.
22. The teacher in the class has used the above with me. YES NO
If NO‚ go to the next strategy. If YES‚ how often? _______
 
General Power Measures
In any student/teacher relationship it is not unusual for teachers to certain forms of power to get their students to perform tasks. Generally there are five common types of classroom power. They are Coercive‚ Reward‚ Legitimate‚ Referent‚ and Expert.
A teacher’s coercive power is based on a student’s expectations that he/she will be punished by the teacher if he/she does not conform to the teacher’s wishes.
A teacher’s reward power is based on a student’s perception of the degree to which the teacher is in a position to provide rewards to the student for complying with the teacher’s wishes.
A teacher’s legitimate power is based on the student’s perception that the teacher has the right to make certain demands and requests as a function of his/her role as the teacher.
A teacher’s referent power is based on the student’s perception that the teacher is a person he/she can identify with and would do things for without even being asked to do so.
A teacher’s expert power is based on the student’s perception that the teacher is competent and knowledgeable in specific areas.
 
Presuming that 100 percent represents all of the power that a teacher uses with her/his students‚ please estimate the percentage the teacher in the class preceding this one uses each of the five power types. For example‚ if they use a lot of coercive but little else‚ you might respond as follows: 80 coercive‚ 5 reward‚ 5 legitimate‚ 5 referent‚ 5 expert.
Be sure the total percentage for the five categories adds up to100.
1._________coercive
2._________reward
3._________legitimate
4._________referent
5._________expert
___100____Total
 
Teachers vary a lot in how much power they use in the classroom .Please estimate the total power use of the teacher in the space below. Presume that “0” means that the teacher does not make any attempt to exercise power in the class and that “9” means the teacher uses more power than many other teachers you have had‚
This teacher uses how much power? (please circle)
0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9.
 
Rarely = 1; Occasionally = 2; Often = 3; Very Often = 4
 
This instrument can be found at: http://www.jamescmccroskey.com/measures/power.htm
 

Richmond‚ V. P.‚ & McCroskey‚ J. C. (2001). Organizational Communication for Survival: Making Work‚ Work‚ 2nd Edition. Needham Heights‚ MA: Allyn & Bacon.