This 56-item questionnaire was termed the Personality Disorders Features Screener (PDFS-56); it is designed to measure nonclinical features of the ten personality disorders specified in DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association‚ 2000). The questionnaire is essentially a simplified version of other personality disorder screening questionnaires similar to the ones we have previously used in research with non-clinical samples (e.g.‚ Meyer‚ 2002; Meyer & Carver‚ 2000; Meyer et al.‚ 2005).
A 4-point response scale was used; participants were asked to indicate whether they disagreed strongly (1)‚ disagreed slightly (2)‚ agreed slightly (3)‚ or agreed strongly (4) with each item.
1. I have a hard time trusting a partner because I know how common it is that they might cheat or secretly deceive me.
2. It happens quite often that people want to take advantage of me‚ but I’m usually good at detecting this and doing something about it.
3. I’m probably a bit more suspicious than the average person‚ but that means that I get tricked less easily.
4. Most people are much less trustworthy (and more selfish) than they would like you to believe.
5. I don’t easily share secrets with others because they tend to use it against you at a later time.
6. I am known as a rather cold‚ unemotional person‚ but that’s just who I am.
7. I actually don’t have real friends and that’s okay with me.
8. I prefer to spend time on my own rather than with other people‚ and most of my hobbies require little contact with others.
9. Other people are simply not very important to me (including family members).
10. I don’t feel comfortable in social situations because I don’t trust others.
11. I’m aware that others often think of me as strange‚ odd‚ peculiar‚ or bizarre because of the way I dress or act.
12. My beliefs and ideas may seem strange‚ odd‚ or eccentric to others (but I like them).
13. My sense of humor is very different from the majority and people often ‘‘don’t get it’’ or ‘‘don’t get me.’’
14. I can often sense or see special things or detect meanings that other people just don’t notice.
15. I’ve broken the law many times.
16. If someone seriously annoys me or gets in my way‚ I can get quite nasty with them (and I’m not a weak kind of person who regrets it later!).
17. I’m good at tricking others or making them believe something that isn’t true‚ and I use this skill for my benefit.
18. If I’m honest‚ I have to say that I often lie or cheat to get ahead in life.
19. I’m not the kind of person who is plagued by guilt or shame just because I might have upset someone.
20. As a child I used to get into a lot of trouble for ‘‘bad’’ behaviour (fighting‚ lying‚ stealing‚ etc.).
21. My emotions are like a roller-coaster: very intense and quickly going from very high to very low.
22. Often people that I thought would be great turn out to be horrible.
23. When I’m really stressed‚ I sometimes start to feel strange‚ weird‚ or paranoid (as if the whole world is against me).
24. I sometimes feel so desperate or awful that I have thoughts of wanting to harm or even kill myself.
25. My relationships are usually extremely intense‚ stormy‚ emotional‚ and unstable.
26. I often get so angry or even hateful that I hardly recognize myself later.
27. I get panicky or desperate when I think someone close will leave me or abandon me.
28. I often feel empty inside: not sure who I am or where I’m going with my life.
29. If something upsets me‚ my emotions can get out of control rather easily.
30. I often do things for a kick or a thrill even though I know they may be self-damaging (e.g.‚ having sex with people I hardly know‚ doing drugs‚ getting extremely drunk).
31. I’m a ‘‘social butterfly’’ who can easily show whatever emotions the situation requires.
32. I love being the ‘‘life of the party‚’’ I’m a born entertainer!
33. I can be very sexy or seductive‚ and I know how to use it!
34. Most people who meet me almost instantly love me because I’m such a charming person!
35. Some people may consider me to be overly dramatic‚ but that’s just my style!
36. I may not be the most precise‚ but when I speak it’s always animated‚ full of passion‚ charm‚ and flair.
37. I’m a multi-talented person who is actually far more gifted than average people.
38. Other people may find me a bit grandiose or ‘‘full of myself‚’’ but if I’m perfectly honest I actually do think that I’m in many ways more special or better than average people.
39. Even though they may not always admit it‚ other people often admire me because of my abilities or talents.
40. Other people at times find me arrogant‚ but that’s really their problem!
41. I’m sure that if I wanted to‚ I could achieve extreme heights of success‚ power‚ or brilliance in life.
42. I often feel somewhat inferior or inadequate in social situations.
43. I’m socially quite shy‚ restrained‚ or inhibited.
44. I don’t like getting involved with other people because I often feel they may ridicule or not accept me.
45. I find it hard to relax when I’m around others because I always feel they may reject or disapprove of me.
46. I’m very sensitive to other people’s criticism.
47. I can be a bit submissive‚ needy‚ or clingy in close relationships‚ but I try to not let that become a problem.
48. I’m not good at making decisions by myself; I need someone trusted to make the decisions for me.
49. It’s hard for me to disagree with others because I fear that if I disagree‚ they may dislike me.
50. If I were all alone‚ without a supportive partner‚ I probably would feel quite helpless and unable to make it.
51. Being in a close relationship is extremely important to me; it gives my life purpose and direction.
52. I often insist that things be done exactly my way‚ and I get annoyed when other people try to ‘‘cut corners’’ or perform a job poorly.
53. I’m known to be a bit of a perfectionist or ‘‘control freak.’’
54. My standards for performance are extremely high‚ I’m never satisfied with ‘‘just getting the job done’’; it needs to be done very‚ very well.
55. I like to attend to details‚ rules‚ lists‚ order‚ and schedules‚ in order to ensure that everything proceeds correctly‚ without errors.
56. I can be quite stubborn‚ but it’s usually in the service of doing things the right way and not compromising my high standards.
Happiness and despair on the catwalk: Need satisfaction‚ well-being‚ and personality adjustment among fashion models
BJORN MEYER1‚ MARIA K. ENSTROM1‚ MONA HARSTVEIT1‚ DAVID P. BOWLES2‚ &
CHRISTOPHER G. BEEVERS3
1City University‚ London‚ UK‚ 2Sheffield Hallam University‚ UK‚ and 3University of Texas at Austin‚ USA The Journal of Positive Psychology‚ January 2007; 2(1): 2–17