Teaching Anxiety Scale

Parsons, J. S. (1973). Assessment of anxiety about teaching using the Teaching Anxiety Scale: Manual and research. Paper presented at American Educational Research Association. ERIC ED 079 330.

Comments: The 25-item TCHAS examines the relationship between teaching anxiety and acquiring teaching skills. In addition, the scale helps preservice teachers identify their strengths and weaknesses.

Scale Construction: The TCHAS was originally developed at Stanford University (two equivalent forms) to assess anxiety specifically related to the job of teaching. The scale was geared to preservice teachers. Revised forms are available with 24, 28, and 29 items for use with inservice teachers. About one-half of the items were written negatively.

Sample: Overall, six groups participated in the study. The four groups of preservice teachers consisted of 55 graduate preservice intern teachers (secondary); 79 undergraduate preservice teachers (secondary); 30 undergraduate preservice student teachers (elementary); and 36 undergraduate and graduate preservice elementary and secondary teachers. The two groups of inservice teachers consisted of 384 newly hired elementary and secondary teachers; and 23 elementary and junior high school teachers. A description of the samples is provided.

Reliability: Alpha coefficients for preservice teachers were 0.90 (undergraduate and graduate elementary and secondary preservice teachers); 0.92 (undergraduate preservice elementary student teachers; 0.92 (graduate preservice secondary intern teachers; and 0.88 (undergraduate secondary preservice teachers). Alpha coefficients for inservice teachers were: 0.87 (elementary and secondary teachers); and 0.93 (elementary and junior high school teachers). Test-retest correlations for four groups ranged from 0.60 to 0.95, indicating that the TCHAS is stable over short time periods. Detailed test-retest information is provided.

Validity: Component analysis, group differences, internal structure, and change over time are discussed as they establish the construct validity of the TCHAS. The TCHAS was positively correlated with the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. In addition, most anxious and least anxious groups were used based on the opinion of 25 teaching supervisors. The most anxious group scored significantly higher on the TCHAS than the least anxious group. The high alpha coef- ficients present evidence that teaching anxiety is a single concept. Two factor analyses confirmed the single factor structure. The results of various studies show that teaching anxiety decreases over time for preservice teachers. Tables are presented to support construct validity.

Factor Analysis: The results of two factor analyses using the 25-item TCHAS confirmed a single factor solution with 22 of 25 items loading on one factor. The three items that failed to load on a single factor were 3, 17, and 22. Therefore, a new 22-item TCHAS was validated. On the 29-item TCHAS, items 26–29 failed to load on a single factor as well as three items from the 25-item TCHAS.

Data Analysis: Distribution statistics are provided for preservice and inservice teachers.


Pigge, F. L., and Marso, R. N. (1994). Relationships of prospective teachers’ personality type and locus of control orientation with changes in their attitude and anxiety about teaching. Midwestern Educational Researcher 7:2–7.

Teaching Anxiety Scale

1. I feel calm and collected when I think about holding parent-teacher conferences.
2. If I have trouble answering a student’s question I (will find) find it difficult to concentrate on questions that follow.
3. I feel uncomfortable when I speak before a group.
4. I (would feel) feel calm (if I were) when I am preparing lessons.
5. I’m worried whether I can be a good teacher.
6. I feel sure I will find teaching a satisfying profession.
7. I would feel calm and collected if a student’s parent observed in my classroom.
8. I feel inferior to other preservice teachers in my teacher preparation program.
9. I feel that students will follow my instructions.
10. I feel secure with regard to my ability to keep a class under control.
11. I’m less happy teaching than I thought I’d be.
12. I feel nervous when I am being observed by my college supervisor.
13. I feel confident about my ability to improvise in the classroom.
14. I feel other teachers (will think) think I’m very competent.
15. I (would feel) feel panicky when a student asks me a question I (couldn’t) can’t answer.
16. I feel anxious because I don’t know yet whether I really want to be a teacher.
17. I feel better prepared for teaching than other preservice teachers in my teacher preparation program.
18. Lack of rapport with my students (will be) is one of my biggest worries.
19. I would feel anxious if the principal informed me he was coming to my class to observe.
20. I (would find) find it easy to speak up in the staff room.
21. I worry about being able to keep the students interested in what I (will teach) teach them.
22. I (would find) find it easy to admit to the class that I don’t know the answer to a question a student asks.
23. Deciding how to present information in the classroom (would make) makes me feel uncertain.
24. I feel I will have good recall of the things I know when I am in front of the class.
25. I feel I (will be) am as competent in the classroom as other preservice teachers in my teacher preparation program.
26. I’m concerned about how to use my testing of students as a useful indication of how effectively I’m teaching them.
27. I’m worried that differences in background between my students and me (will prevent) prevent me from teaching effectively.
28. I am certain that my own personal “hang-ups” (will not) do not hinder my teaching effectiveness.

29. I’m uncertain whether I (will be able to) can tell the difference between really seriously disturbed students and those who are merely “goofing off” in class.


Scoring: Never = 1; Infrequently = 2; Occasionally = 3; Frequently = 4; and Always = 5. Scoring is reversed for the following items: 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 17, 20, 22, 24, 25, and 28.