Teachers’ Beliefs about Administrators scale (TBA)

Feldman, D., and Gerstein, L. H. (1988). A factor analytic study of three teacher belief scales. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 21:72–80.


The 12-item Teachers’ Beliefs about Administrators (TBA) scale can be used to determine how teachers feel about their administrative support systems. In addition to the TBA scale, the authors also developed the Teachers’ Beliefs about Parents Scale and the Perceptions of Parental Beliefs Concerning Teachers. Psychometric information for all three scales is included in the article. All three scales could be used to determine the content and quality of the relationships among teachers, parents, and administrators.

Scale Construction:

A review of the literature on administrative responsibilities and previous studies on teacher attitudes toward administrators were studied in order to identify concepts. Five education professors and six doctoral students sorted concepts (100 percent interrater agreement).


The sample consisted of 462 teachers who were taking graduate courses at three state universities in Arizona, Indiana, and Texas.


The scale had an alpha (Cronbach) coefficient of 0.92.


Content validity was established by scale construction. Construct validity was established by factor analytic procedures.

Factor Analysis:

Principal components factor analysis with a varimax rotation yielded one factor with 12 items. The final factor solution was cross-validated. These beliefs centered on administrative leadership, administrative partner- ship, and administrative support.

Data Analysis:

Factor analysis was undertaken to establish a meaningful factor structure and to eliminate items. Tests for reliability were run to determine the internal consistency of the scale. Factor loadings, means, and standard deviations were reported.


Hoy, W. K., and Henderson, J. E. (1983). Principal authenticity, school climate, and pupil-control orientation. Alberta Journal of Educational Research 29:123–30.

Robson, D. L. (1981). Administering educational services for the handicapped: Role expectations and perceptions. Exceptional Children 47:377–78.

Teachers’ Beliefs about Administrators

I believe that Administrators

 1. Know that beginning teachers need time to become master teachers.
2. Realize that teacher training in classroom discipline does not imply that teacher’s sovereign territory of total management of problem behavior.
3. Support both parents and teachers, seeking to develop common ground with mutual regard and respect.
4. Seek to discover on a firsthand basis, in the environment of noted conflict, possible solutions.
5. Resolve problems between parents and teachers that maintain the “face” or “egos” of both parties.
6. Serve as an equivalent partner in behavior management responsibility.
7. Display academic leadership.
8. Display school discipline leadership.
9. Develop positive school climate.
10. Want to improve their interactions with parents.
11. Want to improve their interactions with teachers.
12. Are partners in the educational process.


A percentage likelihood scaling format (0–100 percent) with 10-point intervals is used.