Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire

Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire

PEDRO J. NOBRE,Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal

JOSÉ PINTO-GOUVEIAUniversidade de Coimbra, Portugal

The Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire (SDBQ; Nobre, Pinto-Gouveia, & Gomes, 2003) is an instrument designed to assess sexual dysfunctional beliefs as an indi- cator of vulnerability factors to sexual disorders in both men and women. The SDBQ may be useful in both clinical practice and educational programs.

Description

The SDBQ is a self-report measure with a male and a female version that can be used in both clinical and nonclinical samples. The SDBQ is a 40-item questionnaire assessing an assortment of specific stereotypes and beliefs presented in the clinical literature as predisposing factors to the development and maintenance of the different male and female sexual dysfunctions.

Response Mode and Timing

Participants may respond to the SDBQ using paper and pencil or computer. The response scales are Likert type. Respondents are asked to identify the degree of concordance with 40 statements regarding diverse sexual issues, from 1 (Completely Disagree) to 5 (Completely Agree). Respondents take an average of 10 minutes to complete the SDBQ.

Scoring

Both male and female versions of the SDBQ were submit- ted to factor analysis (Nobre, Pinto-Gouveia, & Gomes, 2003). A principal component analysis with varimax rotation of the female version identified six factors accounting for 43% of the total variance: (a) Sexual Conservatism, Sexual Desire and Pleasure as a Sin, (c) Age-Related Beliefs, (d) Body-Image Beliefs, (e) Denying Affection Primacy, (f) Motherhood Primacy (see Table 1).

The principal component analysis with varimax rotation of the SDBQ male version identified six factors that accounted for 49% of the total variance (Nobre, Pinto- Gouveia, & Gomes, 2003): (a) Sexual Conservatism, (b) Female Sexual Power, (c) “Macho” Belief, (d) Beliefs About Women’s Sexual Satisfaction, (e) Restricted Attitude Toward Sexual Activity, (f) Sex as an Abuse of Men’s Power (see Table 2).

TABLE 1

Domain and Total Scores of the SDBQ (Female Version)

Domains

Item numbers

Min

Max

F1

Sexual Conservatism

2, 4, 7, 13, 14, 17, 27, 28, 32

9

45

F2

Sexual Desire and

Pleasure as a Sin

15, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39

6

30

F3

Age-Related Beliefs

5, 6, 8, 11, 20

5

25

F4

Body-Image Beliefs

10, 12, 38, 40

4

20

F5

Denying Affection

Primacy

1, 3, 18, 22, 23, 24

6

30

F6

Motherhood Primacy

26, 30, 31, 33

4

20

Total

34

170

Note. Items 1, 3, 22, 23, and 24 are scored in reverse order.

TABLE 2

Domain and Total Scores of the SDBQ (Male Version)

Domains

Item numbers

Min

Max

F1

Sexual

2, 5, 9, 18, 21, 24, 25, 26, 32, 33

10

50

Conservatism

F2

Female Sexual

11, 15, 19, 27, 29, 38, 39, 40

8

40

Power

F3

“Macho” Belief

1, 4, 6, 17, 28, 31, 37

7

35

F4

Beliefs About

3, 7, 16, 35, 36

5

25

Women’s

Satisfaction

F5

Restrictive Attitude

8, 12, 13, 30

4

20

Toward Sex

F6

Sex as an Abuse of

10, 22, 34

3

15

Men’s Power

Total

37

185

Note. Item 37 is scored in reverse order. An index of dysfunctional sexual beliefs might be calculated by summing all SDBQ items (after reversing the scores of the inverted items).

Reliability

Internal Consistency

Internal consistency of the instrument was assessed by calculating Cronbach’s alpha statistic for the total scale and also for each dimension of both male and female ver- sions. Results for the total scale (Cronbach’s α = .93 for the male and .81 for the female version) supported the high internal consistency of the SDBQ. The Cronbach’s α for each dimension of the SDBQ ranged from .50 to .89 for the female version and from .54 to .89 for the male version (Nobre, Pinto-Gouveia, & Gomes, 2003).

Test-Retest Reliability

Test-retest reliability for both male and female versions was assessed by computing Pearson product-moment correlations between two consecutive administrations of the questionnaires with a 4-week interval. Both male and female versions presented statistically significant results (p < .05) for the total scale (= .73 and = .80 respectively), demonstrating that the instrument presented good stability over time (Nobre, Pinto-Gouveia, & Gomes, 2003).

Validity

Convergent Validity

Our analysis of convergent validity indicated that the SDBQ is associated with validated measures of sexual and more general beliefs, as well as with measures of sexual functioning (Nobre, Pinto-Gouveia, & Gomes, 2003). Our findings showed statistically significant correlations between the SDBQ and the Sexual Beliefs and Information Questionnaire (SBIQ; Adams et al., 1996). The SDBQ also correlated significantly with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF; Rosen et al., 1997).

Discriminant Validity

We conducted a discriminant validity analysis, using a clinical sample (49 men and 47 women with sexual dys- function) and a matched control group (49 men and 46

women without sexual dysfunction). Findings for both men and women, although not reaching statistical significance, showed that participants from the clinical group presented higher scores on several domains of the SDBQ compared to individuals in the control group. Women in the clinical group presented higher scores in Sexual Conservatism (F1), Sex as a Sin (F2), and Body-Image Beliefs (F4), whereas men with sexual dysfunction showed higher scores on “Macho” Belief (F3; Nobre, Pinto-Gouveia, & Gomes, 2003; Nobre & Pinto-Gouveia, 2006).

Other Information

For more information regarding the SDBQ and permission for its use, please contact Pedro J. Nobre.

Address correspondence to Pedro Nobre, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001–801 Vila Real, Portugal; e-mail: [email protected]

Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire

Male Version

The list presented below contains statements related to sexuality. Please read each statement carefully and circle the number in the right-hand column which corresponds to the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement (circle only one option per statement), from 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree). There are no wrong or right answers, but it is very important that you be honest and that you answer all items.

Completely Disagree Disagree Don’t Disagree or Agree Agree Completely Agree

Sexual Beliefs

1. A real man has sexual intercourse very often

1

2

3

4

5

2. Orgasm is possible only by vaginal intercourse

1

2

3

4

5

3. Penile erection is essential for a woman’s sexual satisfaction

1

2

3

4

5

4. Homosexuality is a sickness

1

2

3

4

5

5. A woman has no other choice but to be sexually subjugated by a man’s power

1

2

3

4

5

6. A real man must wait the necessary amount of time to sexually satisfy a woman during intercourse

1

2

3

4

5

7. A woman may have doubts about a man’s virility when he fails to get an erection during sexual activity

1

2

3

4

5

8. Repeated engagement in oral or anal sex can cause serious health problems

1

2

3

4

5

9. A shorter duration of intercourse is a sign of a man’s power

1

2

3

4

5

10. Sex is an abuse of a male’s power

1

2

3

4

5

11. The consequences of a sexual failure are catastrophic

1

2

3

4

5

12. Women only pay attention to attractive younger men

1

2

3

4

5

13. It is not appropriate to have sexual fantasies during sexual intercourse

1

2

3

4

5

14. There are certain universal rules about what is normal during sexual activity

1

2

3

4

5

15. In bed the woman is the boss

1

2

3

4

5

16. Men who are not capable of penetrating women can’t satisfy them sexually

1

2

3

4

5

17. In sex, getting to the climax is most important

1

2

3

4

5

18. In sex, anything but vaginal intercourse is unacceptable

1

2

3

4

5

19. A woman’s body is her best weapon

1

2

3

4

5

20. A woman may stop loving a man if he is not capable of satisfying her sexually

1

2

3

4

5

21. Vaginal intercourse is the only legitimate type of sex

1

2

3

4

5

22. The quality of the erection is what most satisfies women

1

2

3

4

5

23. A successful career implies the control of sexual urges

1

2

3

4

5

24. Foreplay is a waste of time

1

2

3

4

5

25. Sex is meant only for procreation

1

2

3

4

5

26. In sex, the quicker/faster the better

1

2

3

4

5

27. People who don’t control their sexual urges are more easily controlled by others

1

2

3

4

5

28. A real man is always ready for sex and must be capable of satisfying any woman

1

2

3

4

5

29. If a man lets himself go sexually he is under a woman’s control

1

2

3

4

5

30. Anal sex is a perverted activity

1

2

3

4

5

31. A man must be capable of maintaining an erection until the end of any sexual activity

1

2

3

4

5

32. There is only one acceptable way of having sex (missionary position)

1

2

3

4

5

33. Sexual intercourse before marriage is a sin

1

2

3

4

5

34. Sex is a violation of a woman’s body

1

2

3

4

5

35. A man who doesn’t sexually satisfy a woman is a failure

1

2

3

4

5

36. Whenever the situation arises, a real man must be capable of penetration

1

2

3

4

5

37. Sex can be good even without orgasm

1

2

3

4

5

38. A real man doesn’t need much stimulation to reach orgasm

1

2

3

4

5

39. A woman at her sexual peak can get whatever she wants from a man

1

2

3

4

5

40. The greater the sexual intimacy, the greater the potential for getting hurt

1

2

3

4

5

Female Version

Completely Disagree Disagree Don’t Disagree or Agree Agree  Completely Agree

The list presented below contains statements related to sexuality. Please read each statement carefully and circle the number in the right-hand column which corresponds to the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement (circle only one option per statement), from 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree). There are no wrong or right answers, but it is very important that you be honest and that you answer all items.

Sexual Beliefs

1. Love and affection from a partner are necessary for good sex

1

2

3

4

5

2. Masturbation is wrong and sinful

1

2

3

4

5

3. The most important component of sex is mutual affection

1

2

3

4

5

4. The best gift a woman could bring to marriage is her virginity

1

2

3

4

5

5. After menopause women lose their sexual desire

1

2

3

4

5

6. Women who have sexual fantasies are perverted

1

2

3

4

5

7. Masturbation is not a proper activity for respectable women

1

2

3

4

5

8. After menopause women can’t reach orgasm

1

2

3

4

5

9. There are a variety of ways of getting pleasure and reaching orgasm

1

2

3

4

5

10. Women who are not physically attractive can’t be sexually satisfied

1

2

3

4

5

11. In the bedroom the man is the boss

1

2

3

4

5

12. A good mother can’t be sexually active

1

2

3

4

5

13. Reaching climax/orgasm is acceptable for men but not for women

1

2

3

4

5

14. Sexual activity must be initiated by the man

1

2

3

4

5

15. Sex is dirty and sinful

1

2

3

4

5

16. Simultaneous orgasm for two partners is essential for a satisfying sexual encounter

1

2

3

4

5

17. Orgasm is possible only by vaginal intercourse

1

2

3

4

5

18. The goal of sex is for men to be satisfied

1

2

3

4

5

19. A successful professional career implies control of sexual behavior

1

2

3

4

5

20. As women age the pleasure they get from sex decreases

1

2

3

4

5

21. Men only pay attention to young, attractive women

1

2

3

4

5

22. Sex is a beautiful and pure activity

1

2

3

4

5

23. Sex without love is like food without flavor

1

2

3

4

5

24. As long as both partners consent, anything goes

1

2

3

4

5

25. Any woman who initiates sexual activity is immoral

1

2

3

4

5

26. Sex is meant only for procreation

1

2

3

4

5

27. Sexual intercourse during menstruation can cause health problems

1

2

3

4

5

28. Oral sex is one of the biggest perversions

1

2

3

4

5

29. If women let themselves go sexually they are totally under men’s control

1

2

3

4

5

30. Being nice and smiling at men can be dangerous

1

2

3

4

5

31. The most wonderful emotions that a woman can experience are maternal feelings

1

2

3

4

5

32. Anal sex is a perverted activity

1

2

3

4

5

33. In the bedroom the woman is the boss

1

2

3

4

5

34. Sex should happen only if a man initiates

1

2

3

4

5

35. There is just one acceptable way of having sex (missionary position)

1

2

3

4

5

36. Experiencing pleasure during sexual intercourse is not acceptable in a virtuous woman

1

2

3

4

5

37. A good mother must control her sexual urges

1

2

3

4

5

38. An ugly woman is not capable of sexually satisfying her partner

1

2

3

4

5

39. A woman who only derives sexual pleasure through clitoral stimulation is sick or perverted

1

2

3

4

5

40. Pure girls don’t engage in sexual activity

1

2

3

4

5

References

Adams, S. G., Dubbert, P. M., Chupurdia, K. M., Jones, A., Lofland, K. R., & Leermakers, E. (1996). Assessment of sexual beliefs and infor- mation in aging couples with sexual dysfunction. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, 249–260.

Nobre, P. J., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2006). Dysfunctional sexual beliefs as vulnerability factors to sexual dysfunction. The Journal of Sex Research, 43, 68–75.

Nobre, P. J., Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Gomes, F. A. (2003). Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire: An instrument to assess sexual dysfunctional beliefs as vulnerability factors to sexual problems. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 18, 171–204.

Rosen, R. C., Brown, C., Heiman, J., Leiblum, S., Meston, C., Shabsig, R., et al. (2000). The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): A multidi- mensional self-report instrument for the assessment of female sexual function. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy26, 191–208.

Rosen, R. C., Riley, A., Wagner, G., Osterloh, I. H., Kirkpatrick, J., & Mishra, A. (1997). The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF): A multidimensional scale for assessment of erectile dysfunc- tion. Urology, 49, 822–830.