To measure employees’ OCB‚ we used the five-dimension scale developed by Podsakoff and MacKenzie (1989). Each of five constructs—altruism‚ courtesy‚ sportsmanship‚ conscientiousness‚ and civic virtue—included items describing specific behaviors‚
and managers indicated their agreement on each item for each employee working for them using a seven-point format.
The psychometric properties of this scale have been reported in Podsakoff‚ MacKenzie‚ Moorman‚ and Fetter (1990) and in Moorman (1991). Both studies found support for a five-dimension model of citizenship and reported reliabilities over .70 for each dimension.
1. Helps others who have heavy work loads.
2. Helps others who have been absent.
3. Willingly gives of his/her time to help others who have work related problems.
4. Helps orient new people even though it is not required.
5. Consults with me or other individuals who might be affected by his/her
6. actions or decisions.
7. Does not abuse the rights of others.
8. Takes steps to prevent problems with other workers.
9. Informs me before taking any important actions.
10. Consumes a lot of time complaining about trivial matters. (R)
11. Tends to make “mountains out of molehills” (makes problems bigger than they are). (R)
12. Constantly talks about wanting to quit his/her job. (R)
13. Always focuses on what’s wrong with his/her situation‚ rather than the positive side of it. (R)
14. Is always punctual.
15. Never takes long lunches or breaks.
16. Does not take extra breaks.
17. Obeys company rules‚ regulations and procedures even when no one is watching.
18. Keeps abreast of changes in the organization.
19. Attends functions that are not required‚ but that help the company image.
20. Attends and participates in meetings regarding the organization.
21. “Keeps up” with developments in the company.
JUSTICE AS A MEDIATOR OE THE
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METHODS OF
MONITORING AND ORGANIZATIONAL
BRIAN P. NIEHOFF
Kansas State University
ROBERT H. MOORMAN
West Virginia University
Academy of Management journal
1993. VoL 36. No. 3. 527-556. June