1. I am usually confident that everything will go well‚ even in situations that worry most people.
2. I often try new things just for fun or thrills‚ even if most people think it is a waste of time.
3. I like to discuss my experiences and feelings openly with friends instead of keeping them to myself.
4. When nothing new is happening‚ I usually start looking for something that is thrilling or exciting.
5. Usually‚ I am more worried than most people that something might go wrong in the future.
6. I don’t mind discussing my personal problems with people whom I have known briefly or slightly.
7. I would like to have warm and close friends with me most of the time.
8. I nearly always stay relaxed and carefree‚ even when nearly everyone else is fearful.
9. I usually demand very good practical reasons before I am willing to change my old ways of doing things.
10. I often have to stop what I am doing because I start worrying about what might go wrong.
11. I hate to change the way I do things‚ even if many people tell me there is a new and better way to do it.
12. My friends find it hard to know my feelings because I seldom tell them about my private thoughts.
13. I like it when people can do whatever they want without strict rules and regulations.
14. I often stop what I am doing because I get worried‚ even when my friends tell me everything will go well.
15. It wouldn’t bother me to be alone all the time.
16. I like to be very organized and set up rules for people whenever I can.
17. I usually do things my own way – rather than giving in to the wishes of other people.
18. I usually feel tense and worried when I have to do something new and unfamiliar.
19. I often feel tense and worried in unfamiliar situations‚ even when I others feel there is little to worry about.
20. Other people often think that I am too independent because I won’t do what they want.
21. Even when most people feel it is not important‚ I often insist on things being done in a strict and orderly way.
22. I often do things based on how I feel at the moment without thinking about how they were done in the past.
23. I often feel tense and worried in unfamiliar situations‚ even when others feel there is no danger.
24. I often break: rules and regulations when I think I can get away with it.
25. I don’t care very much whether other people like me or the way I do things.
26. I usually stay calm and secure in situations that most people find physically dangerous.
27. I feel it is more important to be sympathetic and understanding of other people than to be practical and tough minded.
28. I lose my temper more quickly than most people.
29. I am usually confident that I can easily do things that most people would consider dangerous (such as driving an automobile fast on a wet or icy road).
30. I often react so strongly to unexpected news that I say or do things that I regret.
31. People find it easy to come to me for help‚ sympathy‚ and warm understanding.
32. I am much more reserved and controlled than most people.
33. When I have to meet a group of strangers‚ I am more shy than most people.
34. I am strongly moved by sentimental appeals (like when asked to help crippled children).
35. I almost never get so excited that I lose control of myself
36. I have a reputation as someone who is very practical and does not act on emotions
37. I often avoid meeting strangers because I lack confidence with people I do not know.
38. I usually stay away from social situations where I would have to meet strangers even if I am assured that they will be friendly.
39. I usually push myself harder than most people do because I want to do as well as I possibly can.
40. I am slower than most people to get excited about new ideas and activities.
41. I often push myself to the point of exhaustion or try to do more than I really can.
42. I would probably stay relaxed and outgoing when meeting a group of strangers‚ even if I were told they were unfriendly.
43. It is difficult for me to keep the same interests for a long time because my attention often shifts to something else.
44. I think I would stay confident and relaxed when meeting strangers‚ even if I were told they were angry at me.
45. I could probably accomplish more than I do‚ but I don’t see the point in pushing myself harder than is necessary to get by.
46. I like to think about things for a long time before I make a decision.
47. Most of the time I would prefer to do something a little risky (like riding in a fast automobile over steep hills and sharp turns) rather than having to stay quiet and inactive for a few hours
48. I often follow my instincts‚ hunches‚ or intuition without thinking through all the details.
49. I try to do as little work as possible even when other people expect more of me.
50. I often have to change my decisions because I had a wrong hunch or mistaken first impression.
51. Most of the time I would prefer to do something risky (like hang gliding or parachute jumping) rather than having to stay quiet and inactive for a few hours.
52. I am satisfied with my accomplishments‚ and have little desire to do better.
53 I see no point in continuing to work on something unless there is a good chance of success.
54. I have less energy and get tired more quickly than most people.
55. I usually think about all the facts in detail before I make a decision.
56. I nearly always think about all the facts in detail before I make a decision‚ even when other people demand a quick fix.
57. I often need naps or extra rest periods because I get tired so easily.
58. I don’t go out of my way to please other people.
59. I am more energetic and tire less quickly than most.
60. I am usually able to get other people to believe me‚ even when I know what I am say in g is exaggerated or untrue.
61. I find it upsetting when other people don’t give me the support I expect from them.
62. I can usually do a good job of stretching the truth to tell a funnier story or playa joke on someone.
63. I usually can stay “on the go” all day without having to push myself
64. I am usually more upset than most people by the loss of a close friend.
65. I have trouble telling a lie‚ even when it is meant to spare someone else’s feelings.
66. I am better at saving money than most people.
67. Even after there are problems in a friendship‚ I nearly always try to keep it going anyway.
68. I recover more slowly than most people from minor illnesses or stress.
69. I need much extra rest‚ support‚ or reassurance to recover from minor illnesses or stress.
70. I often spend money until I run out of cash or get into debt from using too much credit.
71. I seldom get upset when I don’t receive the recognition I deserve.
72. Because I so often spend too much money on impulse‚ it is hard for me to save money -even for special plans like a vacation.
73. It is extremely difficult for me to adjust to changes in my usual way of doing things because I get so tense‚ tired‚ or worried.
74. If I am feeling upset‚ I usually feel better around friends than when left alone.
75. I usually feel much more confident and energetic than most people‚ even after minor illnesses or stress.
76. Some people think I am too stingy or tight with my money.
77. I often keep trying the same thing over and over again‚ even when I have not had much success in a long time.
78. It is hard for me to enjoy spending money on myself‚ even when I have saved plenty of money.
79. I seldom let myself get upset or frustrated: when things don’t work out I simply move on to other activities.
80. I recover more quickly than most people from minor illnesses or stress.
81. I hate to make decisions based only on my first impression.
82. I think I will have very good luck in the future.
83. I am often moved deeply by a fine speech or poetry.
84. If I am embarrassed or humiliated‚ I get over it very quickly.
85. I like “tried and true” ways of doing things better than trying “new and improved” ways.
86. I like to keep my problems to myself
87. I enjoy saving money more than spending it on entertainment or thrills.
88. Even when I am with friends‚ I prefer not to “open up” very much.
89. I feel very confident and sure of myself in almost all social situations.
90. I usually like to stay cool and detached from other people.
91. I never worry about terrible things that might happen in the future.
92. I am more hard-working than most people.
93. In conversations‚ I am much better as a listener than as a talker.
94. I like to please other people as much as I can.
95. Regardless of any temporary problem that I have to overcome‚ I always think it will turn out well.
96. I like to stay at home better than to travel or explore new places.
97. I am usually so determined that I continue to work long after other people have given up.
98. I usually have good luck in whatever I try to do.
99. I like to pay close attention to details in everything I do.
100. It is easy for me to organize my thoughts while talking to someone.
A newer version of the questionnaire is called Temperament and character Inventory (TCI)
Novelty Seeking (NS)‚ Harm Avoidance (HA)‚ Reward Dependence (RD)‚ Persistence (PS)
and three so-called characters
Self-Directedness (SD)‚ Cooperativeness (CO)‚ Self-Transcendence (ST)
Cloninger‚ c.‚ Przybeck‚ T.‚ & Svrakic‚ D. (1991). The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire: U.S. normative data. Psychological Reports‚ 69‚ 1047-1057.
Cloninger‚ C.R.‚ Svrakic‚ D.M.‚ Przybeck‚ T.R.‚ (1993) . A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50‚ 975– 990.
Cloninger‚ R.C.‚ Bayon‚ C.‚ Svrakic‚ D.M.‚ (1998). Measurement of temperament and character in mood disorders: a model of fundamental states as personality types. J. Affect. Disord. 51‚ 21–32.
Cloninger‚ R.C.‚ Przybeck‚ T.R.‚ Svrakic‚ D.M. et al.‚ (1994). The Temperament and character Inventory (TCI): A guide to its Development and Use. Center for Psychobiology of Personality‚ Washington University‚ St. Louis‚ MO.
Sher‚ K.‚ Wood‚ M.‚ Crews‚ T.‚ & Vandiver‚ V. (1995). The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire: Reliability and validity studies and derivation of a Short Form. Psychological Assessment‚ 7(2)‚ 195-208.
Svrakic‚ D.‚ Whitehead‚ C.‚ Przybeck‚ T.‚ & Cloninger‚ C. (1993). Differential diagnosis of personality disorders by the Seven-Factor Model of Temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry‚ 50(12)‚ 991-999.
Anastasides‚ Nicole. (2012). Avoidance‚ Escape‚ and Approach Behavior in Individuals with High Behavioral Inhibition. Seton Hall University‚ master of Science Theses.
Pournaghash Tehrani‚ S.‚ Besharat‚ M.A.‚ Abdoli Bidhendi‚ M.‚ Feizabadi‚ Z. (2009). Assessment of Novelty Seeking subscale of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) in drug- dependent and non- dependent individuals. Journal of Psychological Science. Volume 8. Issue 31. 335- 346.[ Farsi]