PERCEIVED STRESS SCALE (PSS4)

The questions in this scale ask you about your feelings and thoughts during the last month.   In each case‚ please indicate your response by placing an “X” over the circle representing HOW OFTEN you felt or thought a certain way.
 
 
Never
Almost
Never
Sometime
Fairly
Often
Very
Often
1. In the last month‚ how often have you felt that you were unable to control the important things in your life?
2. In the last month‚ how often have you felt that things were going your way?
 
 
 
 
 
3. In the last month‚ how often have you felt confident about your ability to handle your personal problems?
 
 
 
 
 
4. In the last month‚ how often have you felt difficulties were piling up so high that you could not overcome them?
 
 
 
 
 
This scale can be found in:
Cohen‚ S.‚ Kamarck‚ T.‚ Mermelstein‚ R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior‚ 24‚ 385-396. Link to full-text (pdf)

Cohen‚ S.‚ & Williamson‚ G. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of the United States. In S. Spacapam & S. Oskamp (Eds.)‚ The social psychology of health: Claremont Symposium on applied social psychology. Newbury Park‚ CA: Sage. Link to full-text (pdf)