Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI-R)

1. Homosexuals should never marry.
2. The President of the U.S. should always be a man.
3. Men should be the leader in any group.
6. Men should not wear make-up‚ cover-up‚ or bronzer.
7. Men should watch football games instead of soap operas.
8. All homosexual bars should be closed down.
9. Men should not be interested in talk shows such as “Oprah.”
10. Men should excel at contact sports. **
11. Boys should play with action figures not dolls.
12. Men should not borrow money from friends or family members. **
13. Men should have home improvement skills.
14. Men should be able to fix most things around the house.
15. A man should prefer watching action movies to reading romantic novels.
16. Men should always like to have sex.
17. Homosexuals should not be allowed to serve in the military.
18. Men should never compliment or flirt with another male.
19. Boys should prefer to play with trucks rather than dolls.
20. A man should not turn down sex.
21. A man should always be the boss.
22. A man should provide the discipline in the family.
23. Men should never hold hands or show affection toward another.
24. It is ok for a man to use any and all means to “convince” a woman to have sex. *
(Restrictive Emotionality)
25. Homosexuals should never kiss in public.
26. A man should avoid holding his wife’s purse at all times. **
27. A man must be able to make his own way in the world. **
30. Boys should not throw baseballs like girls.
31. A man should not react when other people cry.
32. A man should not continue a friendship with another man if he finds out that the other man is homosexual. * (Negativity Toward Sexual Minorities) (Restrictive Emotionality)
33. Being a little down in the dumps is not a good reason for a man to act depressed.
36. A man should know how to repair his car if it should break down.
37. Homosexuals should be barred from the teaching profession.
38. A man should never admit when others hurt his feelings.
39. Men should get up to investigate if there is a strange noise in the house at night.
40. A man shouldn’t bother with sex unless he can achieve orgasm. **
41. Men should be detached in emotionally ch‎arged situations.
42. It is important for a man to take risks‚ even if he might get hurt.
43. A man should always be ready for sex.
44. A man should always be the major provider in his family.
45. When the going gets tough‚ men should get tough.
46. I might find it a little silly or embarrassing if a male friend of mine cried over a sad love story. * (Restrictive Emotionality) (Avoidance of Femininity)
47. Fathers should teach their sons to mask fear.
48. I think a young man should try to be physically tough‚ even if he’s not big.
49. In a group‚ it is up to the men to get things organized and moving ahead.
50. One should not be able to tell how a man is feeling by looking at his face.
51. Men should make the final decision involving money.
52. It is disappointing to learn that a famous athlete is gay.
53. Men should not be too quick to tell others that they care about them.
Factor 1: Restrictive Emotionality‚ Factor 2: Self-Reliance Through Mechanical Skills‚ Factor 3: Negativity Toward Sexual Minorities‚ Factor 4: Avoidance of Femininity‚ Factor 5: Importance of Sex‚ Factor 6: Toughness‚ Factor 7: Dominance
* Item removed from final scale because of cross-loading problems (cross-loading scale noted in parentheses). ** Item removed from scale because it did not conceptually fit with its factor and had one of the lowest loadings on its factor.
Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI-R)
Adaptation by: Daniel K. McKelvey‚ 2012
Society thinks the ideal man would …
1)   … believe that homosexuals should never marry.
2)   … think the President of the United States should always be a man.
3)   … be the leader of any group.
4)   … be able to perform his job even if he is physically ill or hurt.
5)   … not talk with a lisp because this is a sign of being gay.
6)   … not wear make-up‚ cover-up‚ or bronzer.
7)   … watch football and not soap operas.
8)   … support the idea that all homosexual bars should be closed down.
9)   … not be interested in talk shows such as “Oprah.”
10)… excel at contact sports.
11)… have played with action figures and not dolls as a boy.
12)… avoid borrowing money from friends or family members.
13)… have home improvement skills.
14)… be able to fix most things around the house.
15)… prefer action movies to romantic-comedies.
16)… always like to have sex.
17)… support homosexuals being barred from military service.
18)… never flirt with or compliment another man.
19)… have preferred playing with trucks rather than dolls as a boy.
20)… not turn down sex.
21)… always be the boss.
22)… provide the discipline in the family.
23)… never hold hands or show affection towards another man.
24)… use any and all means to “convince” a woman to have sex.
25)… find homosexuals kissing in public offensive.
26)… avoid holding his wife’s purse at all times.
27)… make his own way in the world.
28)… always take the initiative when it comes to sex.
29)… never count on someone else to get the job done.
30)… not throw baseballs like a girl.
31)… not react when other people cry.
32)… end a friendship with another man if he finds out that the other man is homosexual.
33)… not act depressed if they are feeling a bit down in the dumps.
34)… respond aggressively if another man flirts with the women accompanying the man because this is a serious provocation.
35)… have found a means of displaying his physical prowess as a boy.
36)… know how to repair his car if it should break down.
37)… think that homosexuals should be barred from teaching.
38)… never admit when others hurt his feelings.
39)… get up and investigate when there is a strange noise in the house at night.
40)… not bother with sex unless he can achieve orgasm.
41)… be detached in emotionally ch‎arged situations.
42)… take risks even if he may get hurt.
43)… always be ready for sex.
44)… always be the major provider in his family.
45)… be tough in the face of demanding situations.
46)… find it a little silly or embarrassing if a male friend of his cried over a sad love story.
47)… teach his sons to mask fear.
48)… be physically tough even if he was not very big.
49)… get things organized and moving ahead when in a group.
50)… not allow other people to tell how he is feeling by looking at his face.
51)… make the final decision involving money.
52)… be disappointed to find out a famous athlete is gay.
53)… not be too quick to tell others that he cares about them.
Now‚ take a moment to consider the male gender as you think it ideally should be. Then‚ proceed with the questionnaire.
Ideally‚ I think a man should…
1)   … believe that homosexuals should never marry.
2)   … think the President of the United States should always be a man.
3)   … be the leader of any group.
4)   … be able to perform his job even if he is physically ill or hurt.
5)   … not talk with a lisp because this is a sign of being gay.
6)   … not wear make-up‚ cover-up‚ or bronzer.
7)   … watch football and not soap operas.
8)   … support the idea that all homosexual bars should be closed down.
9)   … not be interested in talk shows such as “Oprah.”
10)… excel at contact sports.
11)… have played with action figures and not dolls as a boy.
12)… avoid borrowing money from friends or family members.
13)… have home improvement skills.
14)… be able to fix most things around the house.
15)… prefer action movies to romantic-comedies.
16)… always like to have sex.
17)… support homosexuals being barred from military service.
18)… never flirt with or compliment another man.
19)… have preferred playing with trucks rather than dolls as a boy.
20)… not turn down sex.
21)… always be the boss.
22)… provide the discipline in the family.
23)… never hold hands or show affection towards another man.
24)… use any and all means to “convince” a woman to have sex.
25)… find homosexuals kissing in public offensive.
26)… avoid holding his wife’s purse at all times.
27)… make his own way in the world.
28)… always take the initiative when it comes to sex.
29)… never count on someone else to get the job done.
30)… not throw baseballs like a girl.
31)… not react when other people cry.
32)… end a friendship with another man if he finds out that the other man is homosexual.
33)… not act depressed if they are feeling a bit down in the dumps.
34)… respond aggressively if another man flirts with the women accompanying the man because this is a serious provocation.
35)… have found a means of displaying his physical prowess as a boy.
36)… know how to repair his car if it should break down.
37)… think that homosexuals should be barred from teaching.
38)… never admit when others hurt his feelings.
39)… get up and investigate when there is a strange noise in the house at night.
40)… not bother with sex unless he can achieve orgasm.
41)… be detached in emotionally ch‎arged situations.
42)… take risks even if he may get hurt.
43)… always be ready for sex.
44)… always be the major provider in his family.
45)… be tough in the face of demanding situations.
46)… find it a little silly or embarrassing if a male friend of his cried over a sad love story.
47)… teach his sons to mask fear.
48)… be physically tough even if he was not very big.
49)… get things organized and moving ahead when in a group.
50)… not allow other people to tell how he is feeling by looking at his face.
51)… make the final decision involving money.
52)… be disappointed to find out a famous athlete is gay.
53)… not be too quick to tell others that he cares about them.
Next‚ we would like for you to consider how others see you. ha‎ving done this‚ please continue with the survey.
Based on another person’s perspective‚ he or she would say that I …
1)   … believe that homosexuals should never marry.
2)   … think the President of the United States should always be a man.
3)   … am the leader of any group.
4)   … am able to perform my job even if I am physically ill or hurt.
5)   … do talk with a lisp because this is a sign of being gay.
6)   … do not wear make-up‚ cover-up‚ or bronzer.
7)   … watch football and not soap operas.
8)   … support the idea that all homosexual bars should be closed down.
9)   … am not interested in talk shows such as “Oprah.”
10)… excel at contact sports.
11)… played with action figures and not dolls as a boy.
12)… avoid borrowing money from friends or family members.
13)… have home improvement skills.
14)… am able to fix most things around the house.
15)… prefer action movies to romantic-comedies.
16)… always like to have sex.
17)… support homosexuals being barred from military service.
18)… never flirt with or compliment other men.
19)… preferred playing with trucks rather than dolls as a boy.
20)… do not turn down sex.
21)… am always the boss.
22)… provide/would provide the discipline in the family.
23)… never hold hands or show affection towards other men.
24)… use any and all means to “convince” a woman to have sex.
25)… find homosexuals kissing in public offensive.
26)… avoid/would avoid holding my wife’s purse at all times.
27)… make my own way in the world.
28)… always take the initiative when it comes to sex.
29)… never count on someone else to get the job done.
30)… do not throw baseballs like a girl.
31)… do not react when other people cry.
32)… would end a friendship with another man if I found out that the other man is homosexual.
33)… do not act depressed if I am feeling a bit down in the dumps.
34)… respond aggressively if another man flirts with the women accompanying me because this is a serious provocation.
35)… found a means of displaying my physical prowess as a boy.
36)… know how to repair my car if it should break down.
37)… think that homosexuals should be barred from teaching.
38)… never admit when others hurt my feelings.
39)… get up and investigate when there is a strange noise in the house at night.
40)… do not bother with sex unless I can achieve orgasm.
41)… am detached in emotionally ch‎arged situations.
42)… take risks even if I may get hurt.
43)… am always ready for sex.
44)… always am/would be the major provider in my family.
45)… am tough in the face of demanding situations.
46)… would find it a little silly or embarrassing if a male friend of mine cried over a sad love story.
47)… teach/will teach my sons to mask fear.
48)… am/would be physically tough even if I were not very big.
49)… get things organized and moving ahead when in a group.
50)… do not allow other people to tell how I is feeling by looking at my face.
51)… make the final decision involving money.
52)… am disappointed to find out a famous athlete is gay.
53)… am not too quick to tell others that I care about them.
Finally‚ think about how you see yourself. After you have considered this‚ continue on.
I‚ myself‚ …
1)   … believe that homosexuals should never marry.
2)   … think the President of the United States should always be a man.
3)   … am the leader of any group.
4)   … am able to perform my job even if I am physically ill or hurt.
5)   … do talk with a lisp because this is a sign of being gay.
6)   … do not wear make-up‚ cover-up‚ or bronzer.
7)   … watch football and not soap operas.
8)   … support the idea that all homosexual bars should be closed down.
9)   … am not interested in talk shows such as “Oprah.”
10)… excel at contact sports.
11)… played with action figures and not dolls as a boy.
12)… avoid borrowing money from friends or family members.
13)… have home improvement skills.
14)… am able to fix most things around the house.
15)… prefer action movies to romantic-comedies.
16)… always like to have sex.
17)… support homosexuals being barred from military service.
18)… never flirt with or compliment other men.
19)… preferred playing with trucks rather than dolls as a boy.
20)… do not turn down sex.
21)… am always the boss.
22)… provide/would provide the discipline in the family.
23)… never hold hands or show affection towards other men.
24)… use any and all means to “convince” a woman to have sex.
25)… find homosexuals kissing in public offensive.
26)… avoid/would avoid holding my wife’s purse at all times.
27)… make my own way in the world.
28)… always take the initiative when it comes to sex.
29)… never count on someone else to get the job done.
30)… do not throw baseballs like a girl.
31)… do not react when other people cry.
32)… would end a friendship with another man if I found out that the other man is homosexual.
33)… do not act depressed if I am feeling a bit down in the dumps.
34)… respond aggressively if another man flirts with the women accompanying me because this is a serious provocation.
35)… found a means of displaying my physical prowess as a boy.
36)… know how to repair my car if it should break down.
37)… think that homosexuals should be barred from teaching.
38)… never admit when others hurt my feelings.
39)… get up and investigate when there is a strange noise in the house at night.
40)… do not bother with sex unless I can achieve orgasm.
41)… am detached in emotionally ch‎arged situations.
42)… take risks even if I may get hurt.
43)… am always ready for sex.
44)… always am/would be the major provider in my family.
45)… am tough in the face of demanding situations.
46)… would find it a little silly or embarrassing if a male friend of mine cried over a sad love story.
47)… teach/will teach my sons to mask fear.
48)… am/would be physically tough even if I were not very big.
49)… get things organized and moving ahead when in a group.
50)… do not allow other people to tell how I is feeling by looking at my face.
51)… make the final decision involving money.
52)… am disappointed to find out a famous athlete is gay.
53)… am not too quick to tell others that I care about them.
 
Factor 1: Restrictive Emotionality‚ Factor 2: Self-Reliance Through Mechanical Skills‚ Factor 3: Negativity Toward Sexual Minorities‚ Factor 4: Avoidance of Femininity‚ Factor 5: Importance of Sex‚ Factor 6: Toughness‚ Factor 7: Dominance
 
 
Cronbach’s alpha has been reported at .96 for the whole measure (Levant et al.‚ 2007).
 
1-strongly disagree‚ 2- Disagree‚ 3- Disagree Slightly‚ 4- Neither Agree or Disagree‚ 5- Agree Slightly‚ 6- Agree‚ 7-Strongly Agree
Restrictive Emotionality items (31‚ 33‚ 38‚ 41‚ 47‚ 50‚ 53)‚ Self-Reliance Through Mechanical Skills items (13‚ 14‚ 36)‚ Negativity Toward Sexual Minorities items (1‚ 8‚ 17‚ 18‚ 23‚ 25‚ 37‚ 52)‚ Avoidance of Femininity items (6‚ 7‚ 9‚11‚ 15‚ 19‚ 30)‚ Importance of Sex items (16‚ 20‚ 43)‚ Toughness items (39‚ 42‚ 45‚ 48)‚ Dominance items (2‚ 3‚ 21‚ 22‚ 44‚ 49‚ 51) “Levant et al.‚ 2010”
 
This instrument can be found online at: Levant et al.‚ 2010
 

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Levant‚ R. F.‚ & Fischer‚ J. (1998). The Male Role Norms Inventory. In C. M. Davis‚ W. H. Yarber‚ R. Bauserman‚ G. Schreer‚ & S. L. Davis (Eds.)‚ Sexuality-related measures: A compendium (2nd ed.‚ pp. 469 – 472). Thousand Oaks‚ CA: Sage.

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Levant‚ R. F.‚ & Richmond‚ K. (2007). A review of research on masculinity ideologies using the Male Role Norms Inventory. Journal of Men’s Studies‚ 15‚ 130 –146

Levant‚ R. F.‚ Smalley‚ K. B.‚ Aupont‚ M.‚ House‚ A.‚ Richmond‚ K.‚ & Noronha‚ D. (2007). Initial Validation of the Male Role Norms Inventory—Revised. Journal of Men’s Studies‚ 15(1)‚ 85–100.

Levant‚ R. F.‚ Graef‚ S. T.‚ Smalley‚ K. B.‚ Williams‚ C.‚ & McMillan‚ N. (2008). The evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent (MRNI-A). Thymos: Journal of Boyhood Studies‚ 2‚ 46 –59.

Levant‚ Ronald F.‚ Rankin‚ Thomas J.‚ Williams‚ Christine M. Hasan‚ Nadia T. (2010). Evaluation of the Factor Structure and Construct Validity of Scores on the Male Role Norms Inventory—Revised (MRNI–R). Psychology of Men & Masculinity‚ 11(1);25-37.

Levant‚ R. F. (2011). Research in the psychology of men and masculinity using the gender role strain paradigm as a framework. American Psychologist‚ 66‚ 765–776

McKelvey‚ Daniel K. (2012). Identity Discrepancy‚ Male Role Norms‚ and Mental and Physical Health. East Tennessee State University. M.S. dessertation

Levant‚ Ronald F.; Hall‚ Rosalie J.; Rankin‚ Thomas J. (2013). Male Role Norms Inventory–Short Form (MRNI-SF): Development‚ confirmatory factor analytic investigation of structure‚ and measurement invariance across gender. Journal of Counseling Psychology‚ 60(2)‚ Apr 2013‚ 228-238