Comfort and Conformity of Gender Expression Scale (CAGES)

Discomfort with Nonconformity (DWN)
1.    I feel comfortable talking with others about ways that gender-role stereotypes can be challenged. *
2.    I feel uncomfortable if I do not conform to gender expectations in social situations.
3.    I enjoy challenging societal gender norms in creating my personal spaces (e.g. home/office). *
4.    I am uncomfortable interacting with others in ways that do not conform to gender expectations.
5.    I am comfortable interacting with others in ways that defy gender norms. *
6.    I feel comfortable purchasing items that are inconsistent with social expectations of my gender. *
7.    I would feel upset if my personal environment (e.g. home/office) did not conform to gender expectations.
8.    I feel uncomfortable when my appearance does not meet others’ expectations of my gender.
9.    I feel uneasy engaging in certain hobbies or activities that are not considered appropriate for my gender.
10.I feel most at ease when my personal environment (e.g. home‚ office) reflects what most people expect of my gender.
11.I feel uncomfortable purchasing things that most people might consider inappropriate for my gender.
Resentful Conformity (RC)
1.    I feel uneasy when gender norms inhibit the way I can express myself in public.
2.    It upsets me that gender norms influence my behaviors in public.
3.    I feel upset when I conform to gender stereotypes when meeting new people.
Active-Physical Comfort Conformity (APCC)
1.    I feel comfortable using diet/nutrition in order to have my body appear to others as conforming to my gender.
2.    I enjoy using exercise/ weight training that makes my appearance more consistent with gender expectations.
3.    I feel most at ease using diet/nutrition to make my body appear more consistent with gender expectations.
Comfort with Conformity-Appearance (CCA)
1.    I feel most comfortable wearing clothes that do not conform to expectations of my gender.
2.    I feel most comfortable getting my hair cut in a way that most people perceive to clearly match my gender.
3.    I feel most comfortable when I make clothing choices that fit expectations of my gender.
4.    I feel most attractive when my appearance matches others’ expectations of my gender
5.    I am happy when I express myself in ways that are consistent with gender expectations.
6.    I feel most attractive when I challenge expectations of my gender.
7.    I feel resentful buying clothing that meets others’ expectations of my gender.
* Reverse-score
Discomfort with Nonconformity (DWN)‚ Resentful Conformity (RC)‚ Active-Physical Comfort Conformity (APCC)‚ Comfort with Conformity-Appearance (CCA)
Strongly Disagree (SD)‚ Disagree (D)‚ Agree (A)‚ Strongly agree (SA)

Katherine Spencer‚ 2007. Development and validation of the Comfort and Conformity of Gender Expression Scale (CAGES). University of Missouri-Columbia‚ Doctoral Dissertation