Personality is defined as the characteristic sets of behaviors, cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors. While there is no generally agreed upon definition of personality, most theories focus on motivation and psychological interactions with one’s environment.


    Attached is a list of problems and complaints that people have. Please read each one carefully. After you have done so‚ please fill in the number (0 to 4‚ see below) which best describes how mud) that problem has bothered or distressed you during the past 4 weeks including today. Choose only one number for each problem and do not skip any items. If you change your mind‚ erase your first answer and fill in the new one. All questionnaires will be treated confidentially!
    How much were you bothered or distressed over the past 4 weeks by
    1.    Headaches
    2.    Nervousness or shakiness inside
    3.    Unwanted thoughts or ideas that won’t leave your head
    4.    Faintness or dizziness
    5.    Loss of sexual interest or pleasure
    6.    Feeling critical of others
    7.    The idea that someone else can control your thoughts
    8.    Feeling others are to blame for most of your troubles
    9.    Trouble remembering things
    10.Worried about sloppiness or carelessness
    11.Feeling easily annoyed or irritated
    12.Pains in heart or chest
    13.Feeling afraid in open spaces or on the street
    14.Feeling low in energy or slowed down
    15.Thoughts of ending life
    16.Hearing voices that other people do not hear
    18.Feeling that most people cannot be trusted
    19.Poor appetite
    20.Crying easily
    21.Feeling shy or uneasy with the opposite sex
    22.Feeling of being trapped or caught
    23.Suddenly scared for no reason
    24.Temper outbursts that you could not control
    25.Feeling afraid to go out of your house alone
    26.Blaming yourself for things
    27.Pains in lower back
    28.Feeling blocked in getting things done
    29.Feeling lonely
    30.Feeling blue
    31.Worrying too much about things
    32.Feeling no interest in things
    33.Feeling !Carful
    34.Your feelingha‎ving being easily hurt
    35.Other people being aware of your private thoughts
    36.I:eeling others do not understand you or are unsympathetic
    37.Feeling that people are unfriendly
    38.ha‎ving to do things very slowly
    39.Heart pounding or racing
    40.Nausea or upset stomach
    41.Feeling inferior to others
    42.Soreness of your muscles
    43.Feeling that you are watched or talked about by others
    44.Trouble falling asleep
    45.I laving to check and double check what you do
    46.Difficulty making decisions
    47.Feeling afraid to travel on buses‚ subways or trains
    48.Trouble gelling your breath
    49.Hot or cold spells
    50.ha‎ving to avoid certain things‚ places or activities
    51.Your mind going blank
    52.Numbness or tingling in parts of your body
    53.A lump in your throat
    54.Feeling hopeless about the future
    55.Trouble concentrating
    56.Feeling weak in parts of your body
    57.Feeling tense or keyed up
    58.Heavy feelings in your arms or legs
    59.Thoughts of death or dying
    61.Feeling uneasy when people are watching or talking about you
    62.ha‎ving thoughts that arc not your own
    63.ha‎ving urges to beat‚ injure or harm someone
    64.Awakening in the early morning
    65.ha‎ving to repeat the same actions such as touching‚ counting‚ washing
    66.Sleep that is restless or disturbed
    67.ha‎ving urges to break or smash things
    68.ha‎ving ideas or beliefs that others do not share
    69.Feeling very self-conscious with others
    70.Feeling uneasy in crowds such as shopping or at a movie
    71.Feeling everything is an effort
    72.Spells or terror or panic
    73.Feeling uncomfortable about eating or drinking in public
    74.Getting into frequent arguments
    75.Feeling nervous when you arc left alone
    76.Others not giving you proper credit for your achievements
    77.Feeling lonely even when you are with people
    78.Feeling so restless you couldn’t sit still
    79.Feeling of worthlessness
    80.Feeling that familiar things are strange or unreal
    81.Shouting or throwing things
    82.Feeling afraid you will faint in public
    83.Feeling that people will take advantage of you if you let them
    84.ha‎ving thoughts about sex that bother you a lot
    85.The idea that you should be punished for your sins
    86.Feeling pushed to get things done
    87.The idea that something serious is wrong with your body
    88.Never reeling close to another PERSONAL
    89.Feelings of guilt
    90.The idea that something is wrong with your mind
    0 = not at all; 1 = a little bit; 2 = moderately; 3 = quite a hit; 4 = extremely;

    Derogatis LR‚ Lipman RS‚ Covi L. SCL-90: an outpatient psychiatric rating scale – preliminary report. Psychopharmacol Bull 1973; 9:13–28.

    Derogatis LR‚ Lipman RS‚ Rickels K‚ Uhlenhuth EH‚ Covi L. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) : A measure of Primary Symptom Dimensions. In: Pichot P‚ ed. PsychologicalMeasurements in Psychopharmachology. Basel‚ Karger‚ 1974.

    Derogatis‚ L.R. & Savitz‚ K.L. 2000. The SCL-90-R and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) in Primary Care In: M.E.Maruish‚ ed. Handbook of psychological assessment in primary care settings‚ Volume 236 Mahwah‚ NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates‚ pp 297-334. link leading to Google Books preview of the chapter

  • Seattle Personality Questionnaire -Original

    1.      Talk a Lot in Class
    2.      Feel Afraid a Lot
    3.      Worry What Other Children Say
    4.      Afraid to Try New Things
    5.      Hard to Make Friends at School
    6.      Lot of Aches and Pains
    7.      Think School is Fun
    8.      Worry Others May Not Like You
    9.      Like Everyone You Know
    10. Have Kids to Play with at School
    11. Take Things and Keep Them
    12. Hard to Ask Join Game
    13. Lot of Scary Dreams or Nightmares
    14. Lot of Headaches
    15. Kids at School Like You
    16. Always Good
    17. Like Your Teacher
    18. Lot of Tummy Aches
    19. Lot of Fights
    20. Lonely at School
    21. Ever Feel Mad
    22. Teacher Gets Mad Too Much
    23. Hard for You to Listen
    24. Nice Things Happen at School
    25. Tell a Lot of Lies
    26. Feel Like Throwing Up
    27. Argue a Lot with Other People
    28. Unhappy at School
    29. Worry What Others Think of You
    30. Tease or Make Fun of Other Kids
    31. Wish You Could Stay Home from School
    32. Worry about Being Teased
    33. Break Things on Purpose
    34. Feel Unhappy a Lot
    35. Feel Like Crying a Lot
    36. Feel Upset about Things
    37. Have Trouble Paying Attention
    38. Feel You Do Things Wrong a Lot
    39. Feel That Most Things Not Fun
    40. Feel Sorry for Yourself
    41. Have Trouble Falling/Staying Asleep
    42. Feel Tired a Lot
    43. Often Feel Like Not Eating
    44. Want to be by Yourself a Lot
    The Seattle Personality Questionnaire is a 44-item measure completed by the target child. This measure is designed to determine three dimensions of symptomatology (anxiety‚ conduct problems‚ and somatization)‚ depression‚ school dislike‚ and a lie scale. The symptomatology and lie items were based on the Seattle Personality Questionnaire for Young School-Aged Children‚ which is a 50-item self-report personality questionnaire for children ages 6 through 10 (Kusche‚ Greenberg‚ and Beilke‚ 1988). The school dislike items were borrowed from two scales: School Loneliness (Asher‚ Hymel‚ & Renshaw‚ 2 1984‚ Asher & Wheeler‚ 1985) and School Sentiment (Ladd‚ 1990).
    This tool touches on the following keywords:
    ·         anxiety
    ·         conduct problems
    ·         somatization
    This instrument can be found on page 5 of Seattle Personality Questionnaire-Original Grade 2/Year 3 Fast Track Project Technical Report‚ available online at:
    Grade 2/Year 3
    In year 4‚ the responses for all of the items changed to a scale of 0 to 4‚ with 0=almost never‚ 1=sometimes true‚ 2=often true‚ 3=almost always‚ and 4=don’t know/no response. No other changes were made to the measure in year 4.

    Asher‚ S.‚ Hymel‚ S.‚ & Renshaw‚ P. (1984). Loneliness in children. Child Development‚ 55‚


     Asher‚ S. & Wheeler‚ V. (1985). Children’s loneliness: A comparison of rejected and neglected peer status. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology‚ 53‚ 500-505.

     Kusche‚ C.A.‚ Greenberg‚ M.T.‚ and Beilke‚ R. (1988) Seattle Personality Questionnaire for Young School-Aged Children. Unpublished personality questionnaire‚ University of Washington‚ Department of Psychology‚ Seattle.

    Ladd‚ G. (1990). ha‎ving friends‚ keeping friends‚ making friends‚ and being liked by peers in the classroom: Predictors of children’s early school adjustment? Child Development‚ 61‚ 1081-1100.


    Rains‚ C. (2003). Seattle Personality Questionnaire—Original. (Fast Track Project Technical Report). Available from the Fast Track Project website:

     Greenberg‚ M. & Lengua‚ L. (1995). Scale Construction for the Seattle Personality Inventory. (Fast Track Project Technical Report). Seattle‚ Washington: University of Washington.

  • Seattle Personality Questionnaire

    1. Do you talk in class a lot when you are not supposed to?
    2. Do you feel afraid a lot of the time?
    3. Do you worry about what other kids might be saying about you?
    4. Is it easy for you to express your feelings?
    5. Are you afraid to try new things?
    6. Do you get a lot of pains in your body?
    7. Do you worry a lot that other people might not like you?
    8. Is it easy for you to solve problems with friends on your own?
    9. Do you like everyone you know?
    10. Do you often take things that aren’t yours?
    11. Would it be hard for you to ask kids you didn’t know to join them in a game?
    12. Is it easy for you to understand other people’s feelings?
    13. Do you have a lot of scary dreams or nightmares?
    14. Do you get a lot of headaches?
    15. Are you always good?
    16. Do you worry what others think about how you behave?
    17. Do you get a lot of tummy aches?
    18. Do you get into a lot of fights?
    19. Do you ever feel mad?
    20. Do you work well with other kids?
    21. Is it hard for you to listen and follow directions?
    22. Do you tell a lot of lies?
    23. Do you feel like throwing up a lot?
    24. Is it easy for you to share with others?
    25. Do you argue a lot with other people?
    26. Do you worry about what other people think of you?
    27. Do you often tease or make fun of other kids?
    28. Do you like working together with your friends?
    29. Do you worry about being teased?
    30. Do you sometimes break things on purpose?
    31. Do you feel unhappy a lot of the time?
    32. Are you helpful to others?
    33. Do you feel like crying a lot of the time?
    34. Do you feel upset about things?
    35. Do you have trouble paying attention in class?
    36. Do you listen to what other people think?
    37. Do you feel that you do things wrong a lot?
    38. Do you feel that most things are not that much fun?
    39. Do you feel sorry for yourself?
    40. Can you tell other people what you think without being bossy?
    41. Do you have trouble falling or staying asleep?
    42. Do you feel tired a lot of the time?
    43. Do you often feel like not eating even though it is meal time?
    44. Are you friendly towards others?
    45. Do you want to be by yourself a lot?
    (Items 4‚ 8‚ 12‚ 16‚ 20‚ 24‚ 28‚ 32‚ 36‚ 40 and 44 were added by Aber‚ Brown‚ Jones & Samples‚ 1995‚ for use in a self-report format. Items 1‚ 6‚ 10 and 12 were modified to aid administration.)
    This assessment measures self-reported psychological symptomatology. Respondents are asked to indicate the extent to which each statement reflects their current feelings.
    Measures self-reported psychological symptomatology. Consists of four subscales: anxiety‚ conduct problems‚ somatization and depression.
    ·         anxiety
    ·         conduct problems
    ·         somatization
    This instrument can be found on pages 95-97 of Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes‚ Behaviors‚ and Influences Among Youths: A Compendium of Assessment Tools‚ available online at:
    Urban elementary school children‚ grades 1-6.
    Point values are assigned as follows:
    No = 1
    Yes = 2
    Don’t know = 3
    Four subscales are used: Anxiety (items 2‚ 3‚ 5‚ 7‚ 11‚ 26‚ 29); Conduct Problems (items 1‚ 10‚ 18‚ 21‚ 22‚27 and 30); Somatization (items 6‚ 13‚ 14‚ 17 and 23); and Depression (items 31‚ 33‚ 34‚ 35‚ 37‚ 38‚ 39‚ 41‚42‚ 43 and 45). Items for each subscale are averaged to derive an overall score. Ahigh number indicates ahigh level of personality disorder.

    Greenberg MT. Manual for the Seattle Personality Inventory-Revised: a self-report measure of childsymptomatology. Seattle‚ WA: Department ofPsychology‚ University of Washington‚ 1994.(Unpublished)

    Greenberg MT‚ Kusche CA. Manual for the Seattle Personality Questionnaire. Seattle‚ WA: Departmentof Psychology‚ University of Washington‚ 1990.(Unpublished)

  • Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator (RHETI) version 2.5

    To ensure that the scoring server is working‚ you might want to check by answering a few questions‚ then press SCORE TEST. If you have problem getting the entire test‚ try reloading (refreshing) the page.
    I’ve been romantic and imaginative
    I’ve been pragmatic and down-to-earth.
    I have tended to take on confrontations
    I have tended to avoid confrontations
    I have typically been diplomatic‚ ch‎arming‚ and ambitious
    I have typically been direct‚ formal‚ idealistic
    I have tended to be focused and intense
    I have tended to be spontaneous and fun-loving
    I have been a hospitable person and have enjoyed welcoming new friends into my life
     I have been a private person and have not mixed much with others
    It’s been difficult for me to relax and stop worrying about potential problems
    It’s been difficult for me to get myself worked up about potential problems
    I’ve been more of a “street-smart” survivor
    I’ve been more of a “high-minded” idealist
     I have needed to show affection to people
    I have preferred to maintain a certain distance with people
    When presented with a new experience‚ I’ve usually asked myself if it would be useful to me
    When presented with a new experience‚ I’ve usually asked myself if it would be enjoyable
    I have tended to focus too much on myself
    I have tended to focus too much on others
    Others have depended on my insight and knowledge
    Others have depended on my strength and decisiveness
    I have come across as being too unsure of myself
     I have come across as being too sure of myself
    I have been more relationship-oriented than goal-oriented
     I have been more goal-oriented than relationship-oriented
    I have not been able to speak up for myself very well
    I have been outspoken-I’ve said what others wished they had the nerve to say
    It’s been difficult for me to stop considering alternatives and do something definite
    It’s been difficult for me to take it easy and be more flexible
    I have tended to be hesitant and procrastinating
    I have tended to be bold and domineering
    My reluctance to get too involved has gotten me into trouble with people
    My eagerness to have people depend on me has gotten me into trouble with them
    Usually‚ I have been able to put my feelings aside to get the job done
    Usually‚ I have needed to work through my feelings before I could act
    Generally‚ I’ve been methodical and cautious
    Generally‚ I’ve been adventurous and taken risks
    I have tended to be a supportive giving person who seeks intimancy with others
    I have tended to be a serious‚ reserved person who likes discussing issues
    I’ve often felt the need to be a “pillar of strength”
    I’ve often felt the need to perform perfectly
    I’ve typically been interested in asking tough questions and maintaining my independence
    I’ve typically been interested in maintaining my stability and peace of mind
    I’ve been a bit cynical and skeptical
    I’ve been a bit mushy and sentimental
    I’ve often worried that I’m missing out on something better
    I’ve often worried that if I let down my guard‚ someone will take advantage of me
    My habit of being “standoffish” has annoyed people
    My habit of telling people what to do has annoyed people
    I have tended to get anxious if there was too much excitement and stimulation
    I have tended to get anxious if there was wasn’t enough excitement and stimulation
    I have depended on my friends and they have known that they can depend on me
    I have not depended on people; I have done things on my own
    I have tended to be detached and preoccupied
     I have tended to be moody and self-absorbed
    I have liked to challenge people and “shake them up”
    I have liked to comfort people and calm them down
    I have generally been an outgoing‚ sociable person
    I have generally been an earnest‚ self-disciplined person
    I’ve wanted to “fit in” with others- I get uncomfortable when I stand out too much
    I’ve wanted to stand out from others- I get uncomfortable when I don’t distinguish myself
     Pursuing my personal interests has been more important to me than ha‎ving stability and security
     ha‎ving stability and security had been more important to me than pursuing my personal interests
    When I’ve had conflicts with others‚ I’ve tended to withdraw
    When I’ve had conflicts with others‚ I’ve rarely backed down
    I have given in too easily and let other push me around
    I have been too uncompromising and demanding with others
    I’ve been appreciated for my unsinkable spirit and resourcefulness
    I’ve been appreciated for my deep caring and personal warmth
    I have wanted to make a favorable impression on others
     I have cared little about making a favorable impression on others
    I’ve depended on my perseverance and common sense
     I’ve depended on my imagination and moments of inspiration
     Basically‚ I have been easy-going and agreeable
    Basically‚ I have been hard driving and assertive
    I have worked hard to be accepted and well liked
    Being accepted and well liked has not been a high priority for me
    In reaction to pressure from others‚ I have become more withdrawn
    In reaction to pressure from others‚ I have become more assertive
    People have been interested in me because I’ve been outgoing‚ engaging and interested in them
    People have been interested in me because I’ve been quiet‚ unusual‚ and deeps
    Duty and responsibility have been important values for me
    Harmony and acceptance have been important values for me
    I’ve tried to motivate people by making big plans and promises
    I’ve tried to motivate people by pointing out the consequences of not following my advice
    I have seldom been emotionally demonstrative
    I have often been emotionally demonstrative
    Dealing with details has not been one of my strong suits
     I have excelled at dealing with details
     I have often emphasized how different I am from most peoples‚ especially my family
    I have often emphasized how much I have in common with most people‚ especially my family
    When situations have gotten heated‚ I have tended to stay on the sidelines
    When situations have gotten heated‚ I have tended to get right into the middle of things
    I have stood by my friends‚ even when they have been wrong
    I have not wanted to compromise what is right for friendship
    I’ve been a well-meaning supporter
    I’ve been a highly motivated go-getter
    When troubled‚ I have tended to brood about my problems
    When troubled‚ I have tended to find distractions for myself
    Generally‚ I’ve had strong convictions and a sense of how things should be
    Generally‚ I’ve had serious doubts and have questioned how things seemed to be
    I’ve cr‎eated problems with others by being too pessimistic and complaining
    I’ve cr‎eated problems with others by being too bossy and controlling
    I have tended to act on my feelings and let the “chips fall where they may”
    I have tended not to act on my feelings lest they stir up more problems
    Being the centre of attention has usually felt natural to me
    Being the centre of attention has usually felt strange to me 55.
    I’ve been careful‚ and have tried to prepare for unforeseen problems
    I’ve been spontaneous‚ and have preferred to improvise as problems come up
    I have gotten angry when others have not shown enough appreciation for what I have done for them
    I have gotten angry when others have not listened to what I have told them
    Being independent and self-reliant has been important to me
    Being valued and admired has been important to me
    When I’ve debated with friends‚ I’ve tended to press my arguments forcefully
    When I’ve debated with friends‚ I’ve tended to let things go to prevent hard feelings
    I have often been possessive of loved ones – I have had trouble letting them be
    I have often “tested” loved ones to see if they were really there for me
    Organizing resources and making things happen has been one of my major strengths
     Coming up with new ideas and getting people excited about them has been one of my major strengths
    I’ve tended to be driven and very hard on myself
    I’ve tended to be too emotional and rather undisciplined
    I have tried to keep my life fast-paced‚ intense‚ and exciting
    I have tried to keep my life regular‚ stable‚ and peaceful
    Even though I’ve had successes‚ I’ve tended to doubt my abilities
    Even though I’ve had setbacks‚ I’ve had a lot of confidence in my abilities
    I generally have tended to dwell on my feelings and to hold onto them for a long time
    I generally have tended to minimize my feelings and not pay very much attention to them
    I have provided many people with attention and nurturance
    I have provided many people with direction and motivation
    I’ve been a bit serious and strict with myself
    I’ve been a bit free-wheeling and permissive with myself
    I’ve been self-assertive and driven to excel
    I’ve been modest and have been happy to go at my own pace
    I’ve been proud of my clarity and objectivity
    I’ve been proud of my reliability and commitment
    I have spent a lot of time looking inward-understanding my feelings has been important to me
    I have not spent much time looking inward-getting things done has been important to me
    I have thought of myself as a sunny‚ casual person
    I have thought of myself as a serious‚ dignified person
    I’ve had an agile mind and boundless energy
    I’ve had a caring heart and deep dedication
    I have pursued activities that had a substantial potential for reward and personal recognition
    I have been willing to give up reward and personal recognition if it meant doing work I was really interested in
    Fulfilling social obligations has seldom been high on my agenda
    I have usually taken my social obligations very seriously
    In most situations‚ I have preferred to take the lead
    In most situations‚ I have preferred to let someone else take the lead
    Over the years‚ my values and lifestyle have changed several times
    Over the years‚ my values and lifestyle have remained fairly consistent
    Typically‚ I have not had much self-discipline
    Typically‚ I have not had much connection with people
    I have tended to withhold my affection‚ and have wanted others to come into my world
    I have tended to give my affection too freely‚ and have wanted to extend myself to others
    I have had a tendency to think of worst-case scenarios
    I have had a tendency to think that everything will work out for the best
    People have trusted me because I am confident and can look out for them
    People have trusted me because I am fair and will do what is right
    Often‚ I have been so involved in my own projects that I have become isolated from others
    Often‚ I have been so involved with others that I have neglected my own projects
    When meeting someone new‚ I have usually been poised and self-contained
    When meeting someone new‚ I have usally been chatty and entertaining
    Generally speaking‚ I have tended to be pessimistic
    Generally speaking‚ I have tended to be optimistic
    I have preferred to inhabit my own little world
    I have preferred to let the world know I’m here
    I have often been troubled by nervousness‚ insecurity‚ and doubt I have often been troubled by anger‚ perfectionism‚ and impatience
     I have been a private person and have not mixed much with others
    I realize that I have often been too personal and intimate
    I realize that I have often been too cool and aloof
    I have lost out because I have not felt up to taking opportunities
    I have lost out because I have pursued too many possibilities
    I have tended to take a long time to get into action
    I have tended to get into action quickly
    I usually have had difficulty making decisions
    I seldom have had difficulty making decisions
    I have had a tendency to come on a little too strong with people
    I have had a tendency not to assert myself enough with people
    Typically‚ I have been even-tempered
    Typically‚ I have had strong changes of mood
    When I’ve been unsure of what to do‚ I’ve often sought the advice of others
    When I’ve been unsure of what to do‚ I’ve tried different things to see what worked best for me
    I have worried that I would be left out of others’ activities
    I have worried that others’ activities would distract me from what I had to do
    Typically‚ when I have gotten angry‚ I have told people off
    Typically‚ when I have gotten angry‚ I have become distant
    I’ve tended to have trouble falling asleep
    I have tended to fall asleep easily
    I have often tried to figure out how I could get closer to others
    I have often tried to figure out what others want from me
    I have usually been measured‚ straight-talking‚ and deliberate
    I have usually been excitable‚ fast-talking‚ and witty
    Often‚ I have not spoken up when I’ve seen others making a mistake
    Often‚ I have helped others see that they are making a mistake
    During most of my life‚ I have been a stormy person who has had many volatile feelings
    During most of my life‚ I have been a steady person in whom “still waters run deep”
    When I have disliked people‚ I have usually tried hard to stay cordial-despite my feelings
    When I have disliked people‚ I have usually let them know it-one way or another
    Much of my difficulty with people has come from my touchiness and taking everything too personally
    Much of my difficulty with people has come from my not caring about social conventions
    My approach has been to jump in and rescue people
    My approach has been to show people how to help themselves
    Generally‚ I have enjoyed “letting go” and pushing the limits
    Generally‚ I have not enjoyed losing control of myself very much
    I’ve been overly concerned with doing better than others
    I’ve been overly concerned with making things OK for others
    My thoughts have generally been speculative-involving my imagination and curiosity
    My thoughts have generally been practical-just trying to keep things going
    One of my main assets has been my ability to take ch‎arge of situations
    One of my main assets has been my ability to describe internal states
    I have pushed to get things done correctly‚ even if it made people uncomfortable
    I have not liked feeling pressured‚ so I have not liked pressuring anyone else
    I’ve often taken pride in how important I am in other’s lives
    I’ve often taken pride in my gust and openness to new experiences
    I have perceived that I’ve often come across to others as presentable‚ even admirable
    I have perceived that I’ve often come across to others as unusual‚ even odd
    I have mostly done what I had to do
    I have mostly done what I wanted to do
    I have usually enjoyed high-pressure‚ even difficult‚ situations
    I have usually disliked being in high-pressure‚ even difficult‚ situations
    I’ve been proud of my ability to be flexible-what’s appropriate or important often changes
    I’ve been proud of my ability to take a stand-I’ve been firm about what I believe in
    My style has leaned toward spareness and austerity
    My style has leaned toward excess and overdoing things
    My own health and well-being have suffered because of my strong desire to help others
    My relationships have suffered because of my strong desire to attend to my personal needs
    Generally speaking‚ I’ve been too open and naive
    Generally speaking‚ I’ve been too wary and guarded
    I have sometimes put people off by being too aggressive
    I have sometimes put people off by being too uptight
    Being of service and attending to the needs of others has been a high priority for me
    Finding alternative ways of seeing and doing things has been a high priority for me
    I’ve been single-minded and persistent in pursuing my goals
    I’ve preferred to explore various courses of action to see where they lead
    I have frequently been drawn to situations that stir up deep‚ intense emotions
    I have frequently been drawn to situations that make me feel calm and at ease
    I have cared less about pratical results and about pursuing my interests
    I have been practical and have expected my work to have concrete results
    I have had a deep need to belong
    I have had a deep need to feel balanced
    In the past‚ I’ve probably insisted too much closeness in my friendships
    In the past‚ I’ve probably kept too much distance in my friendships
    I’ve had a tendency to keep thinking about things from the past
    I’ve had a tendency to keep anticipating things I’m going to do
    I’ve tended to see people as intrusive and demanding
    I’ve tended to see people as disorganized and irresponsible
    Generally‚ I have not had much confidence in myself
    Generally‚ I have had confidence only in myself
    I’ve probably been too passive and uninvolved
    I’ve probably been too controlling and manipulative
    I’ve frequently been stopped in my tracks by my self-doubt
    I’ve rarely let self-doubt stand in my way
    Given a choice between something familiar and something new‚ I have usually chosen something new
    I’ve generally chose what I knew I already liked: why be disappointed with something I might not like?
    I have given a lot of physical contact to reassure others about how I feel about them
    I have generally felt that real love does not depend on physical contact
    When I’ve needed to confront someone‚ I’ve often been too harsh and direct
    When I’ve needed to confront someone‚ I’ve often “beaten around the bush” too much
     I have preferred not to spend my time dwelling on disturbing‚ frightening subjects
    I have been attracted to subjects that others would probably find disturbing‚ even frightening
    I have gotten into trouble with people by being too intrusive and interfering
    I have gotten into trouble with people by being too evasive
    I’ve worried that I don’t have the resources to fulfill the responsibilities I’ve taken on
    I’ve worried that I don’t have the self-discipline to focus on what will really fulfill me
    Generally‚ I’ve been a highly intuitive‚ individualistic person
    Generally‚ I’ve been a highly organized‚ responsible person
    Overcoming inertia has been one of my main problems
    Being unable to slow down has been one of my main problems
    When I’ve felt insecure‚ I’ve reacted by becoming arrogant and dismissive
    When I’ve felt insecure‚ I’ve reacted by becoming defensive and argumentative
    I have generally been open-minded and willing to try new approaches
    I have generally been self-revealing and willing to share my feelings with others
    I’ve presented myself to others as tougher than I am
    I’ve presented myself to other as caring more than I really do
    I usually have followed my conscience and reason
    I usually have followed my feelings and impulses
    Serious adversity has made me feel hardened and resolute
    Serious adversity has made me feel discouraged and resigned
    I’ve usually made sure I had some kind of “safety net” to fall back on
    I’ve usually have chosen to live on the edge and to depend on as little as possible
    I’ve had to be strong for others‚ so I haven’t had time to deal with my feelings and fears
    I’ve had difficulty coping with my feelings and fears‚ so it’s been hard for me to be strong for others
    I have often wondered why people focus on the negative when there is so much that’s wonderful about life
    I have often wondered why people are so happy when so much in life is messed up
    I have tried hard not to be seen as a selfish person
    I have tried hard not to be seen as a boring person
    I have avoided intimacy when I feared I would be overwhelmed by people’s needs and demands
    I have avoided intimacy when I feared I would not be able to live up to people’s expectations of me
    This instrument can be found online at:

    Wiltse‚ V.; Palmer‚ H. (July 2011). “Hidden in plain sight: Observations on the origin of the Enneagram”. The Enneagram Journal. 4 (1): 4–37.

    Riso‚ Don Rich‎ard; Hudson‚ Russ (2000). Understanding the Enneagram: The Practical Guide to Personality Types. Houghton Mifflin Company.

    Palmer‚ Helen (1991). The Enneagram: Understanding Yourself and Others in Your Life. HarperSanFrancisco.

    Palmer‚ Helen (1996). The Enneagram in Love and Work: Understanding your Intimate and Business Relationships. HarperOne.

    Riso‚ Don Rich‎ard; Hudson‚ Russ (1996). Personality Types: Using the Enneagram for Self-Discovery. Houghton Mifflin Company.

    Newgent‚ Rebecca A; Parr‚ Patricia E; Newman‚ Isadore; Higgins‚ Kristin K. (2004). The Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator: Estimates of Reliability and Validity. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development36(4): 226-237

    Newgent‚ Rebecca A.‚ Parr‚ Patricia E.‚ Newman‚ I.‚ Higgins‚ K. (2004) The riso-hudson enneagram type indicator: estimates of reliability and validity. Measurement and Evaluation in Conseling and Development‚ 36‚ 226-237.

    Giordano‚ Mary Ann Elizabeth‚ Ph.D. (2008) A Psychometric Evaluation of the Riso-Hudson Type Indicator (RHETI)‚ Version 2.5: Comparison of Ipsa ive and Non-Iipsative Versions and Correlations with Spiritual Outcomes. Behavioral Psychology‚ 4524: 336-5385

  • Your ch‎aracter and self value.

    Answer the following questions and then read about your type.
    1. You have your own point of view.
    Yes……. go to number 2
    No……. go to number 8
    2.You prefer a star-shaped to a heart-shaped necklace.
    Yes……. go to number 3
    No……. go to number 9
    3. You are not interested in dolls or robots.
    Yes…….go to number 4
    No……. go to number 11
    4.You have little interest in Chinese traditional clothing.
    Yes……. go to number 5
    No……. go to number 11
    5. You have red clothing in your wardrobe
    Yes……. go to number 6
    No……. go to number 12
    6. You would like to apply for a job which requires experience.
    Yes……. go to number 7
    No……. go to number 13
    7. Your friends like to get along with you because you are a reliable person.
    Yes…….Type A
    No……. Type B
    8. You have short hair.
    Yes…….go to number 2
    No……..go to number 15
    9. You think your skin complexion is not fair enough.
    Yes……. go to number 3
    No…….go to number 16
    10. Which kind of flowers do you like most?
    A. sunflower …….number 14
    B. wild chrysanthemum…….number 11
    11. You are a conscientious student/employee.
    Yes…….go to number 5
    No…….go to number 17
    12. You have no interest in crafts recently.
    Yes……. go to number 6
    No…….go to number 18
    13. You are an easygoing and friendly person.
    Yes……. go to number 7
    No…….go to number 19
    14. You don’t mind sleeping together with a group of people of the opposite sex on the same bed.
    Yes……. Type A
    No…….go to number 20
    15. You would choose sports as your major extra-curricular activities.
    Yes…….go to number 9
    No…….go to number 21
    16. You are fond of math and science subjects.
    Yes……. go to number 10
    No…….go to number 22
    17. You like orange more than red.
    Yes……. go to number 12
    No…….go to number 24
    18. You like mountains more than oceans.
    Yes…….go to number 13
    No…….go to number 25
    19. Whenever someone is better than you at something‚ you get irritated and uncomfortable.
    Yes…….go to number 14
    No…….go to number 26
    20. You don’t mind talking and laughing loudly in the public.
    Yes…….Type B
    No……. Type C
    21. You always tidy up your own room.
    Yes…….go to number 16
    No…….go to number 28
    22. You like watching TV programs related to sports.
    Yes……. go to number 23
    No…….go to number 29
    23. You think pure friendship cannot exist in between opposite sexes.
    Yes……. go to number 10
    No…….go to number 17
    24. You would like to learn cooking.
    Yes……. go to number 18
    No…….go to number 31
    25. You have a lot of interest in the “internet”.
    Yes……. go to number 19
    No…….go to number 32
    26. What kind of persons do you favor most?
    A. Sporty………………go to number 20
    B. Mature………………go to number 39
    27. You would like to wear clothes which are specially designed to impress others.
    Yes…….Type B
    No…….Type D
    28. You like dogs more than cats.
    Yes…….go to number 22
    No…….go to number 34
    29. You usually carry perfume when you go out.
    Yes…….go to number 30
    No…….go to number 35
    30. You like the moon more than sun.
    Yes……. go to number 23
    No…….go to number 24
    31. You change your hair style frequently.
    Yes……. go to number 25
    No…….go to number 37
    32. Serving others make you busy.
    Yes…….go to number 26
    No…….go to number 38
    33. Your hair is always untidy.
    Yes……. Type C
    No…….go to number 27
    34. You are afraid of cooking.
    Yes…….go to number 29
    No…….go to number 35
    35. You have quite a lot of ornaments.
    Yes…….go to number 36
    No…….go to number 37
    36. You like shopping during holidays.
    Yes……. go to number 37
    No…….go to number 31
    37. You will go and take a portrait in the future.
    Yes…….go to number 32
    No…….go to number 38
    38. You are not fussy about the pattern and cut of your underwear.
    Yes……. go to number 39
    No…….go to number 40
    39. You have no interest in crafts making.
    Yes……. go to number 27
    No…….go to number 33
    40. You follow the fashion trend on clothes.
    Yes…….Type C
    No…….Type D
    Type A: Outgoing type
    You are an outgoing and cheerful person. Although you can still sometimes get frustrated you get through the hard times easily. Your friendly personality is your strong point in the eyes of the opposite sex‚ but this makes your partner feel insecure.
    Type B: Artistic type
    You love caring for others. People find it comfortable talking to you and this enables you to gain their trust. Your personality usually leaves a good impression on those of the opposite sex who are sentimental.
    Type C: Lovable type
    You are regarded as a little sister/brother in the eyes of the opposite sex. You are usually dependent on others and tend to rely on the opinions of other people. Among the 4 types‚ your type favors marriage the most. The first impression you give to the opposite sex is your sympathetic appearance and ch‎aracter. This may account for the reason why others are eager to offer you protection and security.
    Type D: ch‎arming type
    Among the 4 types‚ your type possesses the most ch‎arming beauty. The sexy ch‎arm that you possess attracts other people’s attention and helps you gain popularity. You are advised to be cautious when other people flatter you too much.‎aracter.htm
  • Woodworth Psychoneurotic Inventory

    1.    Do you usually feel well and strong?
    2.    Do you usually sleep well?
    3.    Are you often frightened in the middle of the night?
    4.    Are you troubled with dreams about your work?
    5.    Do you have nightmares?
    6.    Do you have too many sexual dreams?
    7.    Do you ever walk in your sleep?
    8.    Do you have the sensation of falling when going to sleep?
    9.    Does your heart ever thump in your ears so that you cannot sleep?
    10.Do ideas run through your head so that you cannot sleep?
    11.Do you feel well rested in the morning?
    12.Do your eyes often pain you?
    13.Do things ever seem to swim or get misty before your eyes?
    14.Do you often have the feeling of suffocating?
    15.Do you have continual itchings in the face?
    16.Are you bothered much by blushing?
    17.Are you bothered by fluttering of the heart?
    18.Do you feel tired most of the time?
    19.Have you ever had fits of dizziness?
    20.Do you have queer‚ unpleasant feelings in any part of the body?
    21.Do you ever feel an awful pressure in or about the head?
    22.Do you often have bad pains in any part of the body?
    23.Do you have a great many bad headaches?
    24.Is your head apt to ache on one side?
    25.Have you ever fainted away?
    26.Have you often fainted away?
    27.Have you ever been blind‚ half-blind‚ deaf or dumb for a time?
    28.Have you ever had an arm or leg paralyzed?
    29.Have you ever lost your memory for a time?
    30.Did you have a happy childhood?
    31.Were you happy when 14 to 18 years old?
    32.Were you considered a bad boy [or girl]?
    33.As a child did you like to play alone better than to play with other children?
    34.Did the other children let you play with them?
    35.Were you shy with other boys [or girls]?
    36.Did you ever run away from home?
    37.Did you ever have a strong desire to run away from home?
    38.Has your family always treated you right?
    39.Did the teachers in school generally treat you right?
    40.Have your employers generally treated you right?
    41.Do you know of anybody who is trying to do you harm?
    42.Do people find fault with you more than you deserve?
    43.Do you make friends easily?
    44.Did you ever make love to a girl [or boy]?
    45.Do you get used to new places quickly?
    46.Do you find your way about easily?
    47.Does liquor make you quarrelsome?
    48.Do you think drinking has hurt you?
    49.Do you think tobacco has hurt you?
    50.Do you think you have hurt yourself by going too much with women [or men]?
    51.Have you hurt yourself by masturbation (self-abuse)?
    52.Did you ever think you had lost your manhood [or womanhood]?
    53.Have you ever had any great mental shock?
    54.Have you ever seen a vision?
    55.Did you ever have the habit of taking any form of “dope”?
    56.Do you have trouble in walking in the dark?
    57.Have you ever felt as if someone was hypnotizing you and making you act against your will?
    58.Are you ever bothered by the feeling that people are reading your thoughts?
    59.Do you ever have a queer feeling as if you were not your old self?
    60.Are you ever bothered by a feeling that things are not real?
    61.Are you troubled with the idea that people are watching you on the street?
    62.Are you troubled with the fear of being crushed in a crowd?
    63.Does it make you uneasy to cross a bridge over a river?
    64.Does it make you uneasy to go into a tunnel?
    65.Does it make you uneasy to have to cross a wide street or open square?
    66.Does it make you uneasy to sit in a small room with the door shut?
    67.Do you usually know just what you want to do next?
    68.Do you worry too much about little things?
    69.Do you think you worry too much when you have an unfinished job on your hands?
    70.Do you think you have too much trouble in making up your mind?
    71.Can you do good work while people are looking on?
    72.Do you get rattled easily?
    73.Can you sit still without fidgeting?
    74.Does your mind wander badly so that you lose track of what you are doing?
    75.Does some particular useless thought keep coming into your mind to bother you?
    76.Can you do the little chores of the day without worrying over them?
    77.Do you feel you must do a thing over several times before you can dr‎op it?
    78.Are you afraid of responsibility?
    79.Do you feel like jumping off when you are on a high place?
    80.Are you troubled at night with the idea that somebody is following you?
    81.Do you find it difficult to pass urine in the presence of others?
    82.Do you have a great fear of fire?
    83.Do you ever feel a strong desire to go and set fire to something?
    84.Do you ever feel a strong desire to go steal things?
    85.Did you ever have the habit of biting your finger nails?
    86.Did you ever have the habit of stuttering?
    87.Did you ever have the habit of twitching your face‚ neck or shoulders?
    88.Did you ever have the habit of wetting the bed?
    89.Have you ever been unfaithful to a girl [or boy]?
    90.Are you troubled with shyness?
    91.Have you a good appetite?
    92.Is it easy to make you laugh?
    93.Is it easy to get you angry?
    94.Is it easy to get you cross or grouchy?
    95.Do you get tired of people quickly?
    96.Do you get tired of amusements quickly?
    97.Do you get tired of work?
    98.Do your interests change frequently?
    99.Do your feelings keep changing from happy to sad and from sad to happy without any reason?
    100.                Do you feel sad or low-spirited most of the time?
    101.                Did you ever have a strong desire to commit suicide?
    102.                Did you ever have St Vitus’s dance [Sydenham’s chorea —you would know]?
    103.                Did you ever have convulsions?
    104.                Did you ever have heart disease?
    105.                Did you ever have anemia badly?
    106.                Did you ever have dyspepsia [indigestion]?
    107.                Did you ever have asthma or hay fever [allergies]?
    108.                Did you ever have a nervous breakdown?
    109.                Have you ever been afraid of going insane?
    110.                Has any of your family been insane‚ epileptic‚ or feebleminded?
    111.                Has any of your family committed suicide?
    112.                Has any of your family had a drug habit?
    113.                Has any of your family been a drunkard?
    114.                Can you stand the sight of blood?
    115.                Can you stand pain quietly?
    116.                Can you stand disgusting smells?
    117.                Do you like outdoor life?
    YES‚ NO
    This instrument can be found online at:

    Schneck‚ Maximilian R. (1927).The Woodworth Psychoneurotic Inventory as an Instrument of Differential Diagnosis

    Papurt‚ M.J. (1930). “A study of the Woodworth Psychoneurotic Inventory with suggested revision”. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology‚ 25(3)‚ 335-352.

    Uehling‚ H. F. (1934). Comments on a suggested revision of the Woodworth psychoneurotic inventory. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology‚ 28(4)‚ 462-467

  • Understand Yourself Personality Test

    Complete the questionnaire below to better understand your personality!  This questionnaire has been developed by psychologists to provide a comprehensive description of personality.  It can be used to rate the personalities of children‚ adolescents‚ and adults of any age.

    • Read our consent form‚ which explains the benefits of this free‚ anonymous test‚ as well as your rights.
    • There are no “right” or “wrong” answers‚ but note that you will not obtain meaningful results unless you answer the questions seriously.
    • These results are being used in scientific research‚ so please try to give accurate answers.
    • Your results will be displayed as soon as you submit your answers.

    Here are a number of statements that may or may not describe you. Please type a number from 1 to 9 before each statement to indicate the extent to which that statement is ch‎aracteristic or unch‎aracteristic of you. You should rate yourself as you are now‚ not as you were in the past or as you expect to be in the future. Use the following rating scale:












    Neither ch‎aracteristic
    nor unch‎aracteristic




    (type a number from 1-9)


    1. I show my thoughts and feelings in the way I look and act‚ but do not talk much about what I think and about how I feel.

    2. I am considerate and thoughtful of other people.

    3. I am a warm person and respond with kindness to other people.

    4. I get along well with other people.

    5. My peers look up to me and seek me out.

    6. I am helpful and cooperate with other people.

    7. I like physical affection.

    8. I prefer to keep my thoughts and feelings to myself.

    9. I make good and close friendships with other people.

    10. I have friendships that don’t last long; I change friends a lot.

    11. I blame other people for things I have done.

    12. I act immature when I face difficult problems or am under stress.

    13. I try to see what and how much I can get away with. I push limits and stretch the rules.

    14. I am eager to please.

    15. I am concerned with what’s right and what’s wrong.

    16. I am proud of the things I have done and made.

    17. I act very masculine (if male); or I act very feminine (if female).

    18. I let my peers know it when I am upset or angry. I don’t hold back my feelings when I feel upset or angry with them.

    19. I am open and straightforward.

    20. I try to take advantage of other people.

    21. I like to be the center of attention.

    22. I try to get others to do what I want by playing up to them. I act ch‎arming in order to get my way.

    23. I am nervous and fearful.

    24. I worry about things for a long time.

    25. I think things out and reason like a very mature person.

    26. I am physically active. I enjoy playing sports‚ running‚ and exercise.

    27. I look different from other people my own age.

    28. I am energetic and full of life.

    29. I am protective of others. I protect people who are close to me.

    30. Most authority figures (e.g.‚ teachers‚ professors‚ work supervisors) seem to like me.

    31. I am able to see how others feel; I can put myself in their place.

    32. I give‚ lend‚ and share things.

    33. I cry easily.

    34. I am restless and fidgety; I have a hard time sitting still.

    35. I hold things in. I have a hard time expressing myself; I’m a little bit uptight.

    36. I find ways to make things happen and get things done.

    37. I like to compete; I’m always testing and comparing myself to other people.

    38. I have an unusual way of thinking about things-‎-for better or for worse‚ I put things together in my head in a different way than other people would.

    39. I freeze up when things are stressful‚ or else keep doing the same thing over and over.

    40. I am curious and exploring; I like to learn and experience new things.

    41. I am determined; I do not give up easily.

    42. I am an interesting person; people notice me and remember me.

    43. I can bounce back and recover after a stressful or bad experience.

    44. I give in or back down when I have a conflict or disagreement with others.

    45. When I am under stress‚ I give up and back off.

    46. I tend to go to pieces under stress; I get rattled when things are tough.

    47. I have high standards for myself. I need to do very well in the things that I do.

    48. I need to have people tell me that I am doing well. I am not very sure of myself.

    49. I have specific habits or patterns of behavior. (For example‚ I tap my fingers‚ bite my fingernails‚ stutter or bite my lips.)

    50. I tend to get sick when things go wrong or when there is a lot of stress. (For example‚ I get headaches‚ stomach aches‚ throw up.)

    51. I am well-coordinated. (For example‚ I do well in sports.)

    52. I am careful not to get hurt (physically).

    53. I have a hard time making up my mind; I change my mind a lot.

    54. I have unpredictable moods-‎-they change often and quickly.

    55. I worry about not getting my share of material things‚ food‚ or love. I am afraid I won’t get enough.

    56. I am jealous and envious; I want what other people have.

    57. I exaggerate about things that happen to me; I can blow things out of proportion.

    58. I openly show the way I feel‚ whether it’s good or bad.

    59. I am neat and orderly in the way I dress and act.

    60. I get nervous if I am not sure what’s going to happen or when it’s not clear what I am supposed to do.

    61. I tend to be judgmental of the behavior of others.

    62. I am obedient and do what I am told.

    63. I am fast-paced; I move and react to things quickly.

    64. I am calm and relaxed; easy-going.

    65. When I want something‚ I want it right away. I have a hard time waiting for things I want and like.

    66. I pay attention well and can concentrate on things.

    67. I plan things ahead; I think before I do something. “Look before I leap.”

    68. I am a very smart person (even though formal tests and evaluations‚ such as grades in school‚  might not show this).

    69. I have a way with words; I can express myself well with words.

    70. I daydream; I often get lost in thought or a fantasy world.

    71. I often ask authority figures for help and advice.

    72. I often feel guilty; I am quick to blame myself‚ even though I might not talk about it.

    73. I have a sense of humor.

    74. I get wrapped up in what I am doing.

    75. I am cheerful.

    76. I can be trusted; I’m reliable‚ and dependable.

    77. I feel unworthy; I have a low opinion of myself.

    78. I have my feelings hurt easily if I am made fun of or criticized.

    79. I am suspicious-‎-I don’t really trust other people.

    80. I tease and pick on my peers.

    81. I can talk about unpleasant things that have happened to me.

    82. I speak up and stick up for myself; I go after what I want.

    83. I try to be independent and do things without the help of other people. I try not to rely on other people.

    84. I am a talkative person.

    85. I am aggressive. (For example‚ I pick fights or start arguments.)

    86. I like to be by myself; I enjoy doing things alone.

    87. I try to copy and act like the people I admire and look up to.

    88. I am self-confident and sure of myself; I make up my own mind.

    89. I am able to do many things well; I am skillful.

    90. I am stubborn.

    91. I have emotions that don’t seem to fit the situation. (For example‚ I either overreact‚ don’t care‚ or sometimes my reactions just don’t make sense in hindsight.)

    92. I am attractive‚ good-looking.

    93. I am bossy and like to dominate other people.

    94. I whine or pout often.

    95. I let little problems get to me and am easily upset. It doesn’t take much to get me irritated or mad.

    96. I am creative in the way I look at things; the way I think‚ work‚ or play is very creative.

    97. I like to dream up fantasies; I have a good imagination.

    98. I am shy; I have a hard time getting to know people.

    99. I think about my actions and behavior; I use my head before doing or saying something.

    100. My peers often pick on me; I am also often blamed for things I didn’t do.

    101. I am the kind of person almost everyone likes.

    102. I am talkative.

    103. I tend to find fault with others.

    104. I do a thorough job.

    105. I worry a lot.

    106. I like to reflect‚ play with ideas.

    107. I tend to be quiet.

    108. I am considerate and kind to almost everyone.

    109. I tend to be disorganized.

    110. I am relaxed‚ handle stress well.

    111. I have few artistic interests.

    112. I am someone with whom people really enjoy spending time.

    113. I am outgoing‚ sociable.

    114. I am sometimes rude to others.

    115. I persevere until the task is finished.

    116. I can be tense.

    117. I am sophisticated in art‚ music‚ or literature.

    118. I am reserved.

    119. I have a forgiving nature.

    120. I can be somewhat careless.

    121. I am emotionally stable‚ not easily upset.

    122. I prefer work that is routine.

    Before submitting your responses‚ please help us improve this site by answering a few demographic questions about yourself. These questions are entirely optional and will not affect your feedback.

  • Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ)

    1. I am usually confident that everything will go well‚ even in situations that worry most people.
    2. I often try new things just for fun or thrills‚ even if most people think it is a waste of time.
    3. I like to discuss my experiences and feelings openly with friends instead of keeping them to myself.
    4. When nothing new is happening‚ I usually start looking for something that is thrilling or exciting.
    5. Usually‚ I am more worried than most people that something might go wrong in the future.
    6. I don’t mind discussing my personal problems with people whom I have known briefly or slightly.
    7. I would like to have warm and close friends with me most of the time.
    8. I nearly always stay relaxed and carefree‚ even when nearly everyone else is fearful.
    9. I usually demand very good practical reasons before I am willing to change my old ways of doing things.
    10. I often have to stop what I am doing because I start worrying about what might go wrong.
    11. I hate to change the way I do things‚ even if many people tell me there is a new and better way to do it.
    12. My friends find it hard to know my feelings because I seldom tell them about my private thoughts.
    13. I like it when people can do whatever they want without strict rules and regulations.
    14. I often stop what I am doing because I get worried‚ even when my friends tell me everything will go well.
    15. It wouldn’t bother me to be alone all the time.
    16. I like to be very organized and set up rules for people whenever I can.
    17. I usually do things my own way – rather than giving in to the wishes of other people.
    18. I usually feel tense and worried when I have to do something new and unfamiliar.
    19. I often feel tense and worried in unfamiliar situations‚ even when I others feel there is little to worry about.
    20. Other people often think that I am too independent because I won’t do what they want.
    21. Even when most people feel it is not important‚ I often insist on things being done in a strict and orderly way.
    22. I often do things based on how I feel at the moment without thinking about how they were done in the past.
    23. I often feel tense and worried in unfamiliar situations‚ even when others feel there is no danger.
    24. I often break: rules and regulations when I think I can get away with it.
    25. I don’t care very much whether other people like me or the way I do things.
    26. I usually stay calm and secure in situations that most people find physically dangerous.
    27. I feel it is more important to be sympathetic and understanding of other people than to be practical and tough minded.
    28. I lose my temper more quickly than most people.
    29. I am usually confident that I can easily do things that most people would consider dangerous (such as driving an automobile fast on a wet or icy road).
    30. I often react so strongly to unexpected news that I say or do things that I regret.
    31. People find it easy to come to me for help‚ sympathy‚ and warm understanding.
    32. I am much more reserved and controlled than most people.
    33. When I have to meet a group of strangers‚ I am more shy than most people.
    34. I am strongly moved by sentimental appeals (like when asked to help crippled children).
    35. I almost never get so excited that I lose control of myself
    36. I have a reputation as someone who is very practical and does not act on emotions
    37. I often avoid meeting strangers because I lack confidence with people I do not know.
    38. I usually stay away from social situations where I would have to meet strangers even if I am assured that they will be friendly.
    39. I usually push myself harder than most people do because I want to do as well as I possibly can.
    40. I am slower than most people to get excited about new ideas and activities.
    41. I often push myself to the point of exhaustion or try to do more than I really can.
    42. I would probably stay relaxed and outgoing when meeting a group of strangers‚ even if I were told they were unfriendly.
    43. It is difficult for me to keep the same interests for a long time because my attention often shifts to something else.
    44. I think I would stay confident and relaxed when meeting strangers‚ even if I were told they were angry at me.
    45. I could probably accomplish more than I do‚ but I don’t see the point in pushing myself harder than is necessary to get by.
    46. I like to think about things for a long time before I make a decision.
    47. Most of the time I would prefer to do something a little risky (like riding in a fast automobile over steep hills and sharp turns) rather than ha‎ving to stay quiet and inactive for a few hours
    48. I often follow my instincts‚ hunches‚ or intuition without thinking through all the details.
    49. I try to do as little work as possible even when other people expect more of me.
    50. I often have to change my decisions because I had a wrong hunch or mistaken first impression.
    51. Most of the time I would prefer to do something risky (like hang gliding or parachute jumping) rather than ha‎ving to stay quiet and inactive for a few hours.
    52. I am satisfied with my accomplishments‚ and have little desire to do better.
    53 I see no point in continuing to work on something unless there is a good chance of success.
    54. I have less energy and get tired more quickly than most people.
    55. I usually think about all the facts in detail before I make a decision.
    56. I nearly always think about all the facts in detail before I make a decision‚ even when other people demand a quick fix.
    57. I often need naps or extra rest periods because I get tired so easily.
    58. I don’t go out of my way to please other people.
    59. I am more energetic and tire less quickly than most.
    60. I am usually able to get other people to believe me‚ even when I know what I am say in g is exaggerated or untrue.
    61. I find it upsetting when other people don’t give me the support I expect from them.
    62. I can usually do a good job of stretching the truth to tell a funnier story or playa joke on someone.
    63. I usually can stay “on the go” all day without ha‎ving to push myself
    64. I am usually more upset than most people by the loss of a close friend.
    65. I have trouble telling a lie‚ even when it is meant to spare someone else’s feelings.
    66. I am better at saving money than most people.
    67. Even after there are problems in a friendship‚ I nearly always try to keep it going anyway.
    68. I recover more slowly than most people from minor illnesses or stress.
    69. I need much extra rest‚ support‚ or reassurance to recover from minor illnesses or stress.
    70. I often spend money until I run out of cash or get into debt from using too much credit.
    71. I seldom get upset when I don’t receive the recognition I deserve.
    72. Because I so often spend too much money on impulse‚ it is hard for me to save money -even for special plans like a vacation.
    73. It is extremely difficult for me to adjust to changes in my usual way of doing things because I get so tense‚ tired‚ or worried.
    74. If I am feeling upset‚ I usually feel better around friends than when left alone.
    75. I usually feel much more confident and energetic than most people‚ even after minor illnesses or stress.
    76. Some people think I am too stingy or tight with my money.
    77. I often keep trying the same thing over and over again‚ even when I have not had much success in a long time.
    78. It is hard for me to enjoy spending money on myself‚ even when I have saved plenty of money.
    79. I seldom let myself get upset or frustrated: when things don’t work out I simply move on to other activities.
    80. I recover more quickly than most people from minor illnesses or stress.
    81. I hate to make decisions based only on my first impression.
    82. I think I will have very good luck in the future.
    83. I am often moved deeply by a fine speech or poetry.
    84. If I am embarrassed or humiliated‚ I get over it very quickly.
    85. I like “tried and true” ways of doing things better than trying “new and improved” ways.
    86. I like to keep my problems to myself
    87. I enjoy saving money more than spending it on entertainment or thrills.
    88. Even when I am with friends‚ I prefer not to “open up” very much.
    89. I feel very confident and sure of myself in almost all social situations.
    90. I usually like to stay cool and detached from other people.
    91. I never worry about terrible things that might happen in the future.
    92. I am more hard-working than most people.
    93. In conversations‚ I am much better as a listener than as a talker.
    94. I like to please other people as much as I can.
    95. Regardless of any temporary problem that I have to overcome‚ I always think it will turn out well.
    96. I like to stay at home better than to travel or explore new places.
    97. I am usually so determined that I continue to work long after other people have given up.
    98. I usually have good luck in whatever I try to do.
    99. I like to pay close attention to details in everything I do.
    100. It is easy for me to organize my thoughts while talking to someone.
    A newer version of the questionnaire is called Temperament and ch‎aracter Inventory (TCI)
    Novelty Seeking (NS)‚ Harm Avoidance (HA)‚ Reward Dependence (RD)‚ Persistence (PS)
    and three so-called ch‎aracters
    Self-Directedness (SD)‚ Cooperativeness (CO)‚ Self-Transcendence (ST)

    Cloninger‚ c.‚ Przybeck‚ T.‚ & Svrakic‚ D. (1991). The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire: U.S. normative data. Psychological Reports‚ 69‚ 1047-1057.

    Cloninger‚ C.R.‚ Svrakic‚ D.M.‚ Przybeck‚ T.R.‚ (1993) . A psychobiological model of temperament and ch‎aracter. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50‚ 975– 990.

    Cloninger‚ R.C.‚ Bayon‚ C.‚ Svrakic‚ D.M.‚ (1998). Measurement of temperament and ch‎aracter in mood disorders: a model of fundamental states as personality types. J. Affect. Disord. 51‚ 21–32.

    Cloninger‚ R.C.‚ Przybeck‚ T.R.‚ Svrakic‚ D.M. et al.‚ (1994). The Temperament and ch‎aracter Inventory (TCI): A guide to its Development and Use. Center for Psychobiology of Personality‚ Washington University‚ St. Louis‚ MO.

    Sher‚ K.‚ Wood‚ M.‚ Crews‚ T.‚ & Vandiver‚ V. (1995). The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire: Reliability and validity studies and derivation of a Short Form. Psychological Assessment‚ 7(2)‚ 195-208.

    Svrakic‚ D.‚ Whitehead‚ C.‚ Przybeck‚ T.‚ & Cloninger‚ C. (1993). Differential diagnosis of personality disorders by the Seven-Factor Model of Temperament and ch‎aracter. Archives of General Psychiatry‚ 50(12)‚ 991-999.

    Anastasides‚ Nicole. (2012). Avoidance‚ Escape‚ and Approach Behavior in Individuals with High Behavioral Inhibition. Seton Hall University‚ ma‎ster of Science Theses.

    Pournaghash Tehrani‚ S.‚ Besharat‚ M.A.‚ Abdoli Bidhendi‚ M.‚ Feizabadi‚ Z. (2009). Assessment of Novelty Seeking subscale of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) in drug- dependent and non- dependent individuals. Journal of Psychological Science. Volume 8. Issue 31. 335- 346.[ Farsi]

  • The Personality Disorder Features Screener (PDFS-56).

    This 56-item questionnaire was termed the Personality Disorders Features Screener (PDFS-56); it is designed to measure nonclinical features of the ten personality disorders specified in DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association‚ 2000). The questionnaire is essentially a simplified version of other personality disorder screening questionnaires similar to the ones we have previously used in research with non-clinical samples (e.g.‚ Meyer‚ 2002; Meyer & Carver‚ 2000; Meyer et al.‚ 2005).
    A 4-point response scale was used; participants were asked to indicate whether they disagreed strongly (1)‚ disagreed slightly (2)‚ agreed slightly (3)‚ or agreed strongly (4) with each item.
    1. I have a hard time trusting a partner because I know how common it is that they might cheat or secretly deceive me.
    2. It happens quite often that people want to take advantage of me‚ but I’m usually good at detecting this and doing something about it.
    3. I’m probably a bit more suspicious than the average person‚ but that means that I get tricked less easily.
    4. Most people are much less trustworthy (and more selfish) than they would like you to believe.
    5. I don’t easily share secrets with others because they tend to use it against you at a later time.
    6. I am known as a rather cold‚ unemotional person‚ but that’s just who I am.
    7. I actually don’t have real friends and that’s okay with me.
    8. I prefer to spend time on my own rather than with other people‚ and most of my hobbies require little contact with others.
    9. Other people are simply not very important to me (including family members).
    10. I don’t feel comfortable in social situations because I don’t trust others.
    11. I’m aware that others often think of me as strange‚ odd‚ peculiar‚ or bizarre because of the way I dress or act.
    12. My beliefs and ideas may seem strange‚ odd‚ or eccentric to others (but I like them).
    13. My sense of humor is very different from the majority and people often ‘‘don’t get it’’ or ‘‘don’t get me.’’
    14. I can often sense or see special things or detect meanings that other people just don’t notice.
    15. I’ve broken the law many times.
    16. If someone seriously annoys me or gets in my way‚ I can get quite nasty with them (and I’m not a weak kind of person who regrets it later!).
    17. I’m good at tricking others or making them believe something that isn’t true‚ and I use this skill for my benefit.
    18. If I’m honest‚ I have to say that I often lie or cheat to get ahead in life.
    19. I’m not the kind of person who is plagued by guilt or shame just because I might have upset someone.
    20. As a child I used to get into a lot of trouble for ‘‘bad’’ behaviour (fighting‚ lying‚ stealing‚ etc.).
    21. My emotions are like a roller-coaster: very intense and quickly going from very high to very low.
    22. Often people that I thought would be great turn out to be horrible.
    23. When I’m really stressed‚ I sometimes start to feel strange‚ weird‚ or paranoid (as if the whole world is against me).
    24. I sometimes feel so desperate or awful that I have thoughts of wanting to harm or even kill myself.
    25. My relationships are usually extremely intense‚ stormy‚ emotional‚ and unstable.
    26. I often get so angry or even hateful that I hardly recognize myself later.
    27. I get panicky or desperate when I think someone close will leave me or abandon me.
    28. I often feel empty inside: not sure who I am or where I’m going with my life.
    29. If something upsets me‚ my emotions can get out of control rather easily.
    30. I often do things for a kick or a thrill even though I know they may be self-damaging (e.g.‚ ha‎ving sex with people I hardly know‚ doing drugs‚ getting extremely drunk).
    31. I’m a ‘‘social butterfly’’ who can easily show whatever emotions the situation requires.
    32. I love being the ‘‘life of the party‚’’ I’m a born entertainer!
    33. I can be very sexy or seductive‚ and I know how to use it!
    34. Most people who meet me almost instantly love me because I’m such a ch‎arming person!
    35. Some people may consider me to be overly dramatic‚ but that’s just my style!
    36. I may not be the most precise‚ but when I speak it’s always animated‚ full of passion‚ ch‎arm‚ and flair.
    37. I’m a multi-talented person who is actually far more gifted than average people.
    38. Other people may find me a bit grandiose or ‘‘full of myself‚’’ but if I’m perfectly honest I actually do think that I’m in many ways more special or better than average people.
    39. Even though they may not always admit it‚ other people often admire me because of my abilities or talents.
    40. Other people at times find me arrogant‚ but that’s really their problem!
    41. I’m sure that if I wanted to‚ I could achieve extreme heights of success‚ power‚ or brilliance in life.
    42. I often feel somewhat inferior or inadequate in social situations.
    43. I’m socially quite shy‚ restrained‚ or inhibited.
    44. I don’t like getting involved with other people because I often feel they may ridicule or not accept me.
    45. I find it hard to relax when I’m around others because I always feel they may reject or disapprove of me.
    46. I’m very sensitive to other people’s criticism.
    47. I can be a bit submissive‚ needy‚ or clingy in close relationships‚ but I try to not let that become a problem.
    48. I’m not good at making decisions by myself; I need someone trusted to make the decisions for me.
    49. It’s hard for me to disagree with others because I fear that if I disagree‚ they may dislike me.
    50. If I were all alone‚ without a supportive partner‚ I probably would feel quite helpless and unable to make it.
    51. Being in a close relationship is extremely important to me; it gives my life purpose and direction.
    52. I often insist that things be done exactly my way‚ and I get annoyed when other people try to ‘‘cut corners’’ or perform a job poorly.
    53. I’m known to be a bit of a perfectionist or ‘‘control freak.’’
    54. My standards for performance are extremely high‚ I’m never satisfied with ‘‘just getting the job done’’; it needs to be done very‚ very well.
    55. I like to attend to details‚ rules‚ lists‚ order‚ and schedules‚ in order to ensure that everything proceeds correctly‚ without errors.
    56. I can be quite stubborn‚ but it’s usually in the service of doing things the right way and not compromising my high standards.
    Happiness and despair on the catwalk: Need satisfaction‚ well-being‚ and personality adjustment among fashion models
    1 City University‚ London‚ UK‚
    2 Sheffield Hallam University‚ UK‚
    3 University of Texas at Austin‚ USA
    The Journal of Positive Psychology‚ January 2007; 2(1): 2–17
  • Ten Item Personality Measure (TIPI)

    Here are a number of personality traits that may or may not apply to you. Please write a number next to each statement to indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with that statement. You should rate the extent to which the pair of traits applies to you‚ even if one ch‎aracteristic applies more strongly than the other.   
     I see myself as:
    1.      _____ Extraverted‚ enthusiastic.
    2.      _____ Critical‚ quarrelsome.
    3.      _____ Dependable‚ self-disciplined.
    4.      _____ Anxious‚ easily upset.
    5.      _____ Open to new experiences‚ complex.
    6.      _____ Reserved‚ quiet.
    7.      _____ Sympathetic‚ warm.
    8.      _____ Disorganized‚ careless.
    9.      _____ Calm‚ emotionally stable.
    10.   _____ Conventional‚ uncreative.
    1 = Disagree strongly‚ 2 = Disagree moderately‚ 3 = Disagree a little‚ 4 = Neither agree nor disagree‚ 5 = Agree a little‚ 6 = Agree moderately‚ 7 = Agree strongly
    TIPI scale scoring (“R” denotes reverse-scored items):

    Extraversion: 1‚ 6R; Agreeableness: 2R‚ 7; Conscientiousness; 3‚ 8R; Emotional Stability: 4R‚ 9; Openness to Experiences: 5‚ 10R.


    Gosling‚ S. D.‚ Rentfrow‚ P. J.‚ & Swann‚ W. B.‚ Jr. (2003). A Very Brief Measure of the Big Five Personality Domains. Journal of Research in Personality‚ 37‚ 504-528.

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